IAS Gyan

Daily News Analysis


8th November, 2022 Environment

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Context: Fuelled by ever-rising greenhouse gas (GHG) concentrations and accumulated heat, the past eight years (2015-22) are on track to be the eight warmest on record and the year 2022 will possibly be the fifth or sixth warmest year, said the World Meteorological Department  with the UN annual climate conference (COP27) being inaugurated here to discuss how to limit the warming and minimise its impact through joint global action.



  • The WMO in its State of the Global Climate report 2022 also showed that the global mean temperature in 2022 is currently estimated to be about 1.15 (1.02 to 1.28) degree Celsius above the pre-industrial level (1850-1900 average) -- it means keeping the warming within 1.5 degree C goal by the end of the century may be extremely difficult.
  • The report flagged how the warming made every heatwave more intense and life-threatening, especially for vulnerable populations, and witnessed upsurge in climate change impacts as sea level rise accelerates, European glacier melt shatters records and extreme weather causes devastation.
  • It said the tell-tale signs and impacts of climate change are becoming more dramatic, underlining that the rate of sea level rise has doubled since 1993. It has risen by nearly 10 mm since January 2020 to a new record high this year.
  • The past two and a half years alone account for 10% of the overall rise in sea level since satellite measurements started nearly 30 years ago.
  • The WMO State of the Global Climate report is produced annually. It provides an authoritative voice on the current state of the climate using key climate indicators and reporting on extreme events and their impacts.
  • The WMO report also said that 55% of the ocean surface experienced at least one marine heatwave (MHW) during 2022.
  • It also flagged how large parts of Europe sweltered in repeated episodes of extreme heat
  • South Asia is particularly vulnerable as we have seen the devastating impacts of climate change in terms of rising climate-led extreme events such as floods in Bangladesh, India and Pakistan. The Himalayan glaciers are retreating, and the water regimes in the Himalayan rivers are changing at a fast rate

World Meteorological Organization (WMO)

  • It is an intergovernmental organization with a membership of 193 Member States and Territories.
  • It was established by the ratification of the WMO Convention in 1950.
  • WMO became the specialised agency of the United Nations for meteorology (weather and climate), operational hydrology and related geophysical sciences a year later.
  • The UN Economic and Social Council is the parent organization of WMO.
  • WMO is headquartered at Geneva.
  • WMO is dedicated to international cooperation and coordination on
    • the state and behaviour of the Earth’s atmosphere, its interaction with the land and oceans,
    • the weather and climate it produces, and
    • the resulting distribution of water resources.
  • It facilitates and promotes
    • the establishment of an integrated Earth System observation networkto provide weather, climate and water-related data
    • the creation of standardsfor observation and monitoring
    • the provision of weather, climate and water-related services - to reduce disaster risks and contribute to climate change adaptation etc.
    • the coordination of research and trainingin meteorology and related fields
  • Major reports published by the WMO are - Status of World Climate; Greenhouse Gas Bulletin.