Eucalyptus Snout Beetle
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- Scientists have discovered a natural solution to combat the Eucalyptus Snout Beetle, a notorious pest causing significant damage to eucalyptus forest plantations.
- The breakthrough involves the utilization of naturally occurring pathogenic fungi, transformed into a bio-pesticide to control the beetle population.
Identification and Characterization of Pathogenic Fungi:
- The researchers have successfully identified a pathogenic fungi species effective against the Eucalyptus snout beetle. Through detailed characterization, they aim to turn it into a bio-pesticide.
- The recent study emphasizes the significance of this natural remedy in safeguarding the vast eucalyptus plantations, covering 115,570 hectares in the country.
Eucalyptus Snout Beetle: A Menace to Eucalypts:
- The Eucalyptus snout beetle (Gonipterus platensis), recognized as a leaf-feeding beetle and a major defoliator of eucalyptus trees, poses a serious threat.
- Indigenous to Australia, it has spread to numerous countries worldwide where eucalypts are cultivated, causing substantial damage through feeding on leaves, buds, and shoots.
Challenges and Current Control Methods:
- The beetle's extensive flight capabilities and transportation through forest products make it challenging to control.
- Current control methods involve the use of microwasps (Anaphes spp.), which, although effective, are considered expensive.
- This prompted scientists to explore alternative solutions, leading to the discovery of naturally occurring pathogenic fungi.
Impact and Spread of the Beetle:
- Highlighting the severity of the issue, the researchers underscored the beetle's capacity to damage eucalyptus trees.
- Its distribution spread across 1,156 square kilometers in 1998, growing by 160 km annually in the United States and South Africa within the initial five years.
Entomopathogenic Fungi and Bio-Pesticide Development:
- The study acknowledges the prevalence of mycoinsecticides, particularly from the fungal genera Beauveria and Metarhizium.
- Limited research on using entomopathogenic fungi to control Gonipterus populations prompted the scientists to explore this avenue. By collecting fungi from naturally infected beetles, they aim to enhance the pathogen's adaptability to environmental conditions, ensuring effective control in forest populations.
Global Implications and Bio-Pesticide Application:
- The potential of these fungi extends beyond national borders.
- The researchers suggest the development of a bio-pesticide for sustainable forestry using integrated pest management.
- This solution could be applied in other countries facing severe damage from the Eucalyptus snout beetle.
Evaluation of Biological Insecticides:
- Previous research involved evaluating five biological insecticides, with Beauveria bassiana proving highly effective, causing a mortality rate of 100 percent.
- Metarhizium anisopliae and a Bacillus mixture showed lower mortalities, ranging from 2.5 to 5 percent.
Eucalyptus Forests Worldwide and Economic Impact:
- Eucalyptus forests, covering 20 million hectares globally, play a crucial role in industries such as paper pulp production.
- The study emphasizes the economic significance of protecting these forests, especially in regions like the Iberian Peninsula, where the beetle could lead to defoliation levels of 100 percent and wood volume losses of up to 86 percent.
Fungi Development and Adaptation for Bio-Pesticide Production:
- The researchers developed the fungi by considering various parameters such as insecticidal activity and UV-B radiation tolerance. Beauveria pseudobassiana and Metarhizium brunneum emerged as the most virulent fungi, with pseudobassiana identified as the most adapted for producing a bio-pesticide and tolerant to environmental conditions.
- In conclusion, the use of naturally occurring pathogenic fungi as a bio-pesticide showcases a promising solution for addressing the Eucalyptus snout beetle infestation, with potential global applications and economic benefits.
Q. Consider the following statements regarding the Eucalyptus snout beetle and recent scientific developments:
1.Eucalyptus snout beetle (Gonipterus platensis) is a leaf-feeding beetle indigenous to Australia, known for causing defoliation in eucalyptus plantations.
2.Scientists have successfully implemented a novel technique to genetically modify Eucalyptus trees, enhancing their resistance to the Eucalyptus snout beetle.
3.Microwasps of the genus Anaphes spp. are commonly used to control Eucalyptus snout beetle populations, but they are considered an expensive solution.
Which of the statements above is/are correct?
A) 1 only
B) 2 only
C) 1 and 3 only
D) 2 and 3 only
The correct answer is:
C) 1 and 3 only
This statement is correct. The information aligns with the details provided in the passage about the origin and impact of the Eucalyptus snout beetle.
This statement is incorrect. The passage does not mention any genetic modification of Eucalyptus trees as a method to control the Eucalyptus snout beetle. The focus is on the use of a naturally occurring pathogenic fungi to develop a bio-pesticide.
This statement is correct. The passage mentions that microwasps are used for controlling the Eucalyptus snout beetle but are considered expensive, leading scientists to explore alternative solutions.
Therefore, the correct answer is C) 1 and 3 only
Q. Which of the following statements regarding Microwasps (Anaphes spp.) is correct?
1.Microwasps are genetically modified organisms engineered for pest control in agriculture.
2.Microwasps is commonly used to control the Eucalyptus snout beetle, a major defoliator of eucalyptus trees.
3.Microwasps belong to the order Diptera and are known for their parasitic behavior on insect larvae.
Select the correct answer using the code given below:
A) 1 only
B) 2 only
C) 2 and 3 only
D) 1 and 2 only
The correct answer is:
B) 2 only
This statement is incorrect. The passage does not provide information about microwasps being genetically modified organisms. It mentions microwasps (Anaphes spp.) as a method to control the Eucalyptus snout beetle but does not specify genetic modification.
This statement is correct. The passage indicates that microwasps of the genus Anaphes spp. are used for controlling the Eucalyptus snout beetle.
This statement is incorrect. The passage does not provide information about the taxonomic order of microwasps (Anaphes spp.). Therefore, this statement cannot be confirmed.
Therefore, the correct answer is B) 2 only.Top of Form