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- The water level of Jhelum and its tributaries have fallen drastically owing to dry weather conditions prevalent since the last month in Kashmir Valley.
- As of September 12 at 9 p.m., the water level of Jhelum River at Sangam measured minus 0.01 feet, at Ram Munshi Bagh it was flowing at 2.20 feet, and at Asham 1.55 feet.
The Jhelum River:
- It is a river that runs between India and Pakistan.
- It is an Indus River tributary.
- The Jhelum (Vyeth in Kashmiri, Vetesta in Sanskrit, and Hydaspes in Greek) is the valley's principal stream.
- It is the largest and westernmost of Punjab's five rivers, flowing through the Jhelum District in Pakistan's Punjab province.
Some other facts
- It begins in the Verinag Spring in Anantnag, at the foot of the Pir Panjal range in the Kashmir Valley.
- It then passes through Srinagar and Wular Lake before entering Pakistan.
- On its way to Pakistan, the river carves a steep, tight valley.
- It merges with the Chenab River at Trimmu in Pakistan.
- It is approximately 725 kilometers (450 mi) long in total.
Tributaries of Jhelum River
- The major tributary of the Jhelum is the Kishenganga (Neelum) River, which joins near Muzaffarabad and flows into Pakistan's Punjab province.
- The Kunhar River is the river's second major tributary, connecting Pakistan-occupied Kashmir (PoK) and Pakistan via the Kohala Bridge of Kanghan Valley.
- Sandran River, Bringi River, Arapath River, Watlara River, Lidder River, and Veshaw River are also tributaries.
Understanding Jhelum River's Seasonal Fluctuations
- During the spring season, the Jhelum and its tributaries experience the highest flows as the snow in the upper regions begins to melt due to rising temperatures.
- This rapid snowmelt typically continues until summer.
- While occasional monsoon showers may help sustain water levels until September, even excess rainfall during this southwest monsoon season cannot guarantee a stable water supply in the autumn.
- Autumn is the season when Kashmir witnesses reduced monsoon activity and the impact of Western Disturbances is minimal.
- Moreover, as temperatures in higher altitudes drop below freezing point, the melt-off from glaciers slows down, further contributing to lower water levels in the Jhelum and its tributaries.
Other Indus River System
The Chenab River
- Another important tributary of the Indus River System is the Chenab River, also known as Asskini Chandrabhaga.
- It forms where the Chandra and Bhaga rivers meet in Himachal Pradesh's Western Himalayas.
- The Baralacha La Pass is the principal source of water for these streams.
- The Chenab River flows through Himachal Pradesh and Jammu & Kashmir before joining the Indus.
- It is the Indus River System's greatest tributary.
The River Ravi
- Following that is the Ravi River, commonly known as Iravati or "The River of Lahore."
- The Ravi River rises near the Rohtang Pass in the Himachal Pradesh district of Chamba.
- It meets the Chenab River in Pakistan after traveling approximately 720 kilometers.
- Between the Pir Panjal and Dhauladhar Ranges, the Ravi passes through Shahdara Bagh, which includes the tombs of Jahangir and Noor Jahan.
The Beas River
- The Beas River is an important contributor to the Indus River System.
- It begins its trip in the Beas Kund in Himachal Pradesh's Rohtang La pass.
- The Beas River flows for around 470 kilometers before joining the Satluj River in Punjab.
- As a result, the Beas River flows through Punjab and Himachal Pradesh in India.
The Satluj River
- The Satluj River is an important tributary of the Indus River.
- It has the longest course of any tributary in the Indus River System.
- The Rakkas Lake, sometimes known as Lake Rakshastal, is located in
- The Satluj River then runs through India's Himachal Pradesh and Punjab states before entering India via the Shipki La Pass and joining the Chenab River.
- This River is 1,450 kilometers long in total, with 1,050 kilometers located within Indian territory.
The Historical Importance of the Indus River System
- The Indus River System has a rich historical history, as it was the origin of the Indus Valley Civilization, one of the world's earliest urban civilizations.
- This ancient civilization existed along the banks of the Indus and its tributaries approximately 3300 BCE.
- Archaeological findings have revealed precise town design, advanced drainage systems, and a complex trading network that stretched to Mesopotamia.
The Economic Value of the Indus River System
- For millennia, the fertile alluvial plains watered by the Indus River System have facilitated cultivation.
- The river and its tributaries' waters are used for irrigation via a vast network of canals and dams.
- The region is a key producer of products like rice, wheat, cotton, and sugarcane, which contribute significantly to the economies of the system's member countries.
Hydropower Potential of the Indus River System
- Aside from its agricultural importance, the Indus River System has significant hydropower potential.
- Along its path, dams and hydroelectric projects have been built to generate electricity and give energy to industry and households.
- In Pakistan, projects like the Tarbela Dam and the Mangla Dam are colossal examples of harnessing the river's power for economic growth.
Environmental Issues in the Indus River System
- Over-extraction, pollution, and habitat deterioration pose severe difficulties to the Indus River System.
- Rapid population increase, industrialization, and poor waste management techniques all contribute to the contamination of these essential water sources.
- Balancing economic growth goals with environmental conservation is still a major challenge.
Conflict and International Cooperation on the Indus River System
- Several tributaries of the Indus River flow through multiple countries, resulting in complex water-sharing arrangements and sometimes disputes.
- The World Bank-mediated Indus Waters Treaty of 1960 defines the distribution of river waters between India and Pakistan.
- The achievement of the pact in preserving relative stability in water-sharing illustrates the importance of international cooperation in managing shared resources.
The Impact of Climate Change on the Indus River System
- Climate change threatens the Indus River System by influencing water supply, glacial melt, and monsoon patterns.
- Changes in precipitation patterns and retreating glaciers in the Himalayas could upset the delicate balance of water supply, providing problems for water resource management and agricultural sustainability.
- The Indus River System, which spans millennia and civilizations, is a tribute to the complex interaction that humans have with their environment.
- It has seen civilizations rise and fall, economies evolve, and the problems of industrialization.
- As nations deal with development and conservation imperatives, the Indus River System stands as a symbol of resilience, adaptation, and the interconnectivity of all species along its banks.
Dry weather conditions in Kashmir valley have wide-ranging impacts on Socio-Economic life in the valley. Substantiate