IAS Gyan

Daily News Analysis


12th July, 2023 Science and Technology

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Context: Peru is facing a health crisis as more people are diagnosed with Guillain-Barré syndrome, a rare condition that causes the immune system to attack the nerves and sometimes leads to paralysis.


  • The Government of Peru has declared a national emergency for 90 days to deal with the situation and prevent further complications.
  • The emergency measures include allocating more funds and resources to health facilities, increasing surveillance and monitoring of cases, and educating the public and health workers about the syndrome.
  • The reason for the surge in cases in Peru is not clear yet, the Peruvian authorities are working with the World Health Organization (WHO) and other international partners to investigate the situation and provide assistance.

Guillain-Barré Syndrome

  • Guillain-Barré syndrome (GBS) is a condition that affects the nerves outside the brain and spinal cord, called the peripheral nervous system. Sometimes, the body's immune system attacks these nerves by mistake, causing weakness, numbness, tingling, or pain in different parts of the body.
  • It is a serious disorder that can affect anyone, regardless of age or gender.
  • It usually occurs after an infection, such as a respiratory or gastrointestinal illness, or a vaccination.
  • It can vary in severity from mild to life-threatening. The symptoms usually start suddenly and get worse over days or weeks. Some people may have trouble moving, breathing, or swallowing. Others may lose their reflexes or sensation.
    • Most people reach their weakest point within three weeks of the onset of symptoms.
    • Some people may need intensive care or mechanical ventilation to support their breathing.
  • There is no specific treatment for GBS, but some therapies can help reduce the damage to the nerves and speed up recovery. These include plasma exchange and immunoglobulin therapy.
    • The treatment also involves giving intravenous immunoglobulin (IVIG), which is a type of antibody that helps the body fight infections. People with low levels of immunoglobulin (IgG) are more prone to infections and may need IVIG as well.
  • The recovery time varies from weeks to years, depending on the severity of the condition.

Must-Read Articles:

World Health Organisation (WHO): https://www.iasgyan.in/daily-current-affairs/world-health-organisation-who

Peru: https://www.iasgyan.in/daily-current-affairs/peru


 Q. Guillain-Barre syndrome is a condition in which:

1. The immune system attacks the central nervous system.

2. The immune system attacks the peripheral nervous system.

3. The immune system attacks the muscles.

4. The immune system attacks the blood vessels.

How many of the above statements is/are correct?

A) Only 1

B) Only 2

C) Only 3

D) All

Answer: A

Explanation: Guillain-Barre Syndrome (GBS) is a rare neurological disorder in which your immune system mistakenly attacks part of the peripheral nervous system—the network of nerves located outside of the brain and spinal cord.