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- In dollar terms, the FDI increased to about $3 billion in 2021-22 from about $2.3 billion in 2020-21, according to data from the Department for Promotion of Industry and Internal Trade under the Union Ministry of Commerce and Industry.
What is FDI?
- Foreign direct investment (FDI) is when a company takes controlling ownership in a business entity in another country.
- With FDI, foreign companies are directly involved with day-to-day operations in the other country. This means they aren’t just bringing money with them, but also knowledge, skills and technology.
- Generally, FDI takes place when an investor establishes foreign business operations or acquires foreign business assets, including establishing ownership or controlling interest in a foreign company.
Where is FDI made?
- Foreign Direct Investments are commonly made in open economies that have skilled workforce and growth prospect. FDIs not only bring money with them but also skills, technology and knowledge.
Routes through which India gets FDI
- The non-resident or Indian company does not require prior nod of the RBI or government of India for FDI.
- Foreign Investment is allowed under the automatic route without prior approval of the Government or the Reserve Bank of India, in all activities/ sectors as specified in the Regulation 16 of FEMA 20 (R).
- The government's prior approval is mandatory. The company will have to file an application through Foreign Investment Facilitation Portal, which facilitates single-window clearance.
- The application is then forwarded to the respective ministry, which will approve/reject the application in consultation with the Department for Promotion of Industry and Internal Trade (DPIIT), Ministry of Commerce.
- DPIIT will issue the Standard Operating Procedure (SOP) for processing of applications under the existing FDI policy.
Sectors which come under the ' 100% Automatic Route' category are
- Agriculture & Animal Husbandry,
- Air-Transport Services (non-scheduled and other services under civil aviation sector), Airports (Greenfield + Brownfield),
- Asset Reconstruction Companies, Auto-components, Automobiles, Biotechnology (Greenfield),
- Broadcast Content Services (Up-linking & down-linking of TV channels, Broadcasting Carriage Services,
- Capital Goods,
- Cash & Carry Wholesale Trading (including sourcing from MSEs),
- Coal & Lignite,
- Construction Development,
- Construction of Hospitals,
- Credit Information Companies,
- Duty Free Shops,
- E-commerce Activities,
- Electronic Systems,
- Food Processing,
- Gems & Jewellery,
- Industrial Parks,
- IT & BPM,
- Mining & Exploration of metals & non-metal ores,
- Other Financial Services,
- Services under Civil Aviation Services such as Maintenance & Repair Organizations,
- Petroleum & Natural gas,
- Plantation sector,
- Ports & Shipping,
- Railway Infrastructure,
- Renewable Energy,
- Roads & Highways,
- Single Brand Retail Trading,
- Textiles & Garments,
- Thermal Power,
- Tourism &
- Hospitality and
- White Label ATM Operations.
Government + Automatic Route
Sectors which come under up to 100% Automatic Route' category are
- Infrastructure Company in the Securities Market: 49%
- Insurance: up to 74%
- Medical Devices: up to 100%
- Pension: 49%
- Petroleum Refining (By PSUs): 49%
- Power Exchanges: 49%
- Telecom: 100%
Sectors which come under the 'up to 100% Government Route' category are
- Banking & Public sector: 20%
- Broadcasting Content Services: 49%
- Core Investment Company: 100%
- Food Products Retail Trading: 100%
- Mining & Minerals separations of titanium bearing minerals and ores: 100%
- Multi-Brand Retail Trading: 51%
- Print Media (publications/ printing of scientific and technical magazines/ specialty journals/ periodicals and facsimile edition of foreign newspapers): 100%
- Print Media (publishing of newspaper, periodicals and Indian editions of foreign magazines dealing with news & current affairs): 26%
- Satellite (Establishment and operations): 100%
There are a few industries where FDI is strictly prohibited under any route. These industries are
- Atomic Energy Generation
- Any Gambling or Betting businesses
- Lotteries (online, private, government, etc)
- Investment in Chit Funds
- Nidhi Company
- Agricultural or Plantation Activities (although there are many exceptions like horticulture, fisheries, tea plantations, Pisciculture, animal husbandry, etc)
- Housing and Real Estate (except townships, commercial projects, etc)
- Trading in TDR’s
- Cigars, Cigarettes, or any related tobacco industry
Status of FDI flows into India
- FDI is an important monetary source for India's economic development. Economic liberalization started in India in the wake of the 1991 crisis and since then, FDI has steadily increased in the country.
- India, today is a part of top 100-club on Ease of Doing Business (EoDB) and globally ranks number 1 in the greenfield FDI ranking.
- Apart from being a critical driver of economic growth, Foreign Direct Investment (FDI) has been a major non-debt financial resource for the economic development of India.
- Foreign companies invest in India to take advantage of the relatively lower wages, special investment privileges like tax exemptions, etc. When foreign investment is being made in India, it also helps the country achieve technical know-how and generate employment.
- The Government has taken many initiatives in recent years such as relaxing FDI norms across sectors such as defence, PSU oil refineries, telecom, power exchanges, and stock exchanges, among others.
- India ranked 43rd on the Institute for Management Development’s (IMD) annual World Competitiveness Index 2021. According to the IMD, India's developments in government efficiency are primarily due to relatively stable public finances (despite COVID-19-induced challenges), and optimistic sentiments among Indian business stakeholders with respect to the funding, and subsidies offered by the government to private firms.
- India has recorded highest ever annual FDI inflow of USD 83.57 billion in the Financial Year 2021-22.
- In 2014-2015, FDI inflow in India stood at mere 45.15 USD billion as compared to the highest ever annual FDI inflow of USD 83.57 billion reported during the financial year 2021-22.
- India’s FDI inflows have increased 20-fold since FY03-04, when the inflows were USD 4.3 billion only.
- Total FDI inflow into India in the third quarter of FY22 stood at US$ 17.93 billion, while the FDI equity inflow for the same period stood at US$ 12.02 billion.
Sectors attracting highest FDI
- Data between April-December 2021 indicates that the computer software and hardware industry attracted the highest FDI equity inflow of US$ 10.25 billion, followed by the automobile sector at US$ 5.96 billion, services sector at US$ 5.35 billion, trading sector at US$ 2.99 billion, construction activities at US$ 1.59 billion, and drugs and pharmaceuticals at US$ 1.21 billion.
Top countries with highest FDI equity inflow
- Between April-December 2021, India recorded the highest FDI equity inflow from Singapore (US$ 11.69 billion), followed by the US (US$ 7.52 billion), Mauritius (US$ 6.58 billion), the Cayman Islands (US$ 2.74 billion), the Netherlands (US$ 2.66 billion), and the UK (US$ 1.44 billion).
Top states with highest FDI equity inflow
- Between April-December 2021 Karnataka registered the highest FDI equity inflow of US$ 17.25 billion - 38 % Share, followed by Maharashtra (US$ 9.69 billion), Delhi (US$ 6.39 billion), Tamil Nadu (US$ 2.38 billion), Gujarat (US$ 2.06 billion), and Haryana (US$ 2.03 billion).
During the third quarter of FY22, foreign owned assets in India stood at US$ 926.2 billion, up from US$ 852.4 billion in the third quarter of FY21.
It may be noted that FDI inflow has increased by 23% post-Covid (March, 2020 to March 2022: USD 171.84 billion) in comparison to FDI inflow reported pre-Covid (February, 2018 to February, 2020: USD 141.10 billion) in India.
Government Initiatives promoting FDI
- To boost domestic and foreign investments in India, the central government has taken various steps like – Reduced corporate tax rates, easing NBFC and bank liquidity problems, improving Ease of Doing Business, FDI policy reforms, compliance burden reduction, policy measures to boost domestic manufacturing through public procurement orders, Phased Manufacturing Program (PMP), and various Ministries’ Production Linked Incentives (PLI) schemes are among them.
- Measures such as the India Industrial Land Bank (IILB), the Industrial Park Rating System (IPRS), the soft launch of the National Single Window System (NSWS), the National Infrastructure Pipeline (NIP), the National Monetisation Pipeline (NMP), and others have been put in place to facilitate investment.
- The implementation of measures like PM Gati Shakti, single window clearance and GIS-mapped land bank are expected to push FDI inflows in 2022.
- To further liberalise and simplify FDI policy for providing Ease of doing business and attract investments, reforms have been undertaken recently across sectors such as Coal Mining, Contract Manufacturing, Digital Media, Single Brand Retail Trading, Civil Aviation, Defence, Insurance and Telecom.
Amendment of FEMA
- The government has amended rules of the Foreign Exchange Management Act (FEMA), allowing up to 20% FDI in the insurance company LIC through the automatic route. The Government of India is considering easing scrutiny on certain foreign direct investments from countries that share a border with India.
- In August 2021, the government amended the Foreign Exchange Management (non-debt instruments) Rules, 2019, to allow the 74% increase in FDI limit in the insurance sector.
- In September 2021, the Union Cabinet announced that to boost the telecom sector, they’ll allow 100% FDI via the automatic route in, up from the previous 49%.
Enhanced Trade Partnership
- In September 2021, India and the UK agreed for an investment boost to strengthen bilateral ties for an ‘Enhanced Trade Partnership’.
Empowered Group of Secretaries (EGoS) Project Development Cells (PDCs)
- The Union Cabinet approved the formation of an Empowered Group of Secretaries (EGoS) and Project Development Cells (PDCs) in Ministries to fast-track investments in coordination with state governments and thus grow the pipeline of investible projects in India to increase domestic investments and FDI inflow with a view to support, facilitate and provide investor friendly ecosystem to investors.
- Keeping in mind India’s vision of becoming ‘Atmanirbhar’ and to enhance India’s Manufacturing capabilities and exports, in the Union Budget 2021-22, an outlay of INR 1.97 lakh crore (over US$ 26 billion) for PLI schemes for 13 key manufacturing sectors, starting from fiscal year (FY) 2021-22, has been announced.
The 13 key sectors include existing 3 sectors namely-
- Mobile Manufacturing and Specified Electronic Components,
- Critical key starting materials/ Drug intermediaries & active pharmaceutical ingredients,
- Manufacturing of medical devices and 10 new key sectors which have been approved by the Union Cabinet in November 2020.
- The other 10 key sectors are: (i) Automobiles and Auto Components, (ii) Pharmaceuticals Drugs, (iii) Specialty Steel, (iv) Telecom & Networking Products, (v) Electronic/Technology Products, (vi) White Goods (ACs and LEDs), (vii) Food Products, (viii) Textile Products: MMF segment and technical textiles, (ix) High efficiency solar PV modules, and (x) Advanced Chemistry Cell (ACC) Battery.
Make in India
- It was one of the first ‘Vocal for Local’ campaigns to bring India’s manufacturing sector to the attention of the rest of the globe. Not only does the industry have the capacity to boost economic growth, but it also has the potential to employ a substantial portion of the young workforce.
Investment Clearance Cell (ICC)
- While presenting Budget 2020-21, Finance Minister Nirmala Sitharaman announced plans to set up an Investment Clearance Cell (ICC) that will provide “end to end” facilitation and support to investors, including pre-investment advisory, land bank information and facilitate clearances at centre and state levels. An online digital interface was proposed for the cell’s operation.
One District One Product (ODOP)
- The One District One Product (ODOP) programme aims to identify and promote the manufacture of one-of-a-kind products in each of India’s districts that can be globally marketed.
- This will help in realizing the district’s genuine potential, fueling economic growth, job creation, and rural entrepreneurship. 106 products have been identified from 103 districts around the country as part of the ODOP’s initial phase. Considerable success has been achieved for boosting exports under the ODOP initiative.
The Pros and Cons of FDI
Promotion of investment in key areas
By allowing FDI, we can promote investment in key areas such as infrastructure development as a result of which there will be more production of capital goods. For example, investment in power generation can generate more electric power which will enable the growth of more industries.
FDI can bring in more new technologies which were not adopted in the country till now. Examples are the recent developments in the Communications System. The launching of satellites with the help of other countries has enabled the growth of communication system in the country. Nokia has come to India for promoting India’s communication system.
Increase in Capital inflow
FDI promotes more capital inflow into the country especially in key and core sectors. We have a shortage of capital not only in the form of money but also in the form of material. FDIs will bridge this gap by which there will be speedy economic growth in the country.
Increase in Exports
With the help of FDI, the exports of many underdeveloped countries have increased. The creation of Economic Zones and promotion of 100% export oriented units have helped FDIs in increasing their exports from other countries. Certain consumer products produced by them have world-wide markets. There is a change in the composition of exports and direction of exports with the presence of FDI.
Economic development stimulation
FDI can stimulate a target country’s economic development and create a more conducive environment for companies, the investor, and stimulate the local community and economy.
Easy international trade
Countries usually have their own import tariffs, which makes trading rather difficult. A lot of economic sectors usually require presence in the international makerts to ensure sales and goals are met. FDI makes all of these international trade aspects a lot easier.
Employment and economic boost
FDI creates new jobs and more opportunities as investors build new companies in foreign countries. This can lead to an increase in income and mor purchasing power to locals, which in turn leads to an overall boost in targetted economies.
Promotion of financial services
FDI strengthens financial services of a country by not only entering its banking industry but also by extending other activities such as merchant banking, portfolio investment, etc., which has resulted in the promotion of more new companies. It has also helped the capital market in the country.
Exchange rate stability
Reserve Bank of India has been maintaining the exchange rate in the country through its exchange control measures. But the constant and continuous supply of foreign exchange is a must for continuing exchange rate stability. With more FDIs coming into the country, this is made possible and today RBI is having a comfortable foreign exchange reserve position of more than 1 billion dollars.
Development of backward areas
Foreign direct investments are in a way responsible for the development of backward areas. There are so many industries started by them in far reaching and backward areas, as a result of which these areas have developed into industrial centres. Some of the backward regions have utilized the services of FDIs for starting industries in backward areas. Examples are Hyundai and Ford car units started at Sriperumbadur and Maraimalainagar in India.
Utilization of natural resources
The natural resources in the country is put to better use by the FDls which otherwise would have remained un utilised. The examples are Saint Gobain glass company and manufacture of paper and newsprint.
Change in the lifestyle of people
The presence of FDIs has no doubt changed the life-style pattern of people. The purchase of consumer goods such as TV, fridge, automobiles are made possible as these goods are made available through hire purchase system. The increasing number of automobiles in most of
the cities is a standing example for the change in the life-style.
Foreign investors receive tax incentives that are very beneficial regardless of your selected field of business. Everybody loves a tax write-off.
Development of resources
The development of human capital resources is a big advantage of FDI. The skills gained by the workforce through training increase the overall education and human capital within a country. Countries with FDI are benefiting by developing their human resources all while maintaining ownership.
Foreign direct investment allows for resource transfers and the exchanges of knowledge, technologies, and skills.
It will Improve Competition and Bring Prices Down
Trade in India is majorly fragmented, unorganized, un-networked, inefficient and individually small. The manifestation of the inefficiencies is visible in the huge disparity between the price which the producer gets and the price which the consumer pays— sometimes as high as 10-20 times! Clearly, what is needed is an efficient supply chain backed by improved infrastructure, cold storages, packing and transportation. The traditional system of distribution is just not capable of creating it.
The facilities and equipment provided by foreign investors can increase a workforce’s productivity in the target country.
Increase in a country’s income
Another big advantage of foreign direct investment is the increase of the target country’s income. With more jobs and higher wages, the national income normally increases which promotes economic growth. Large corporations usually offer higher salary levels than what you would normally find in the target country, which can lead to an increment in income.
Hindrance to Domestic Investment
As it focuses its resources elsewhere other than the investor’s home country, foreign direct investment can sometimes hinder domestic investment.
Negative Influence on Exchange Rates
Foreign direct investments can occasionally affect exchange rates to the advantage of one country and the detriment of another.
It is more expensive than when we export goods. So, it is very imperative to prepare sufficient money to set up operations.
Considering that foreign direct investments may be capital-intensive from the point of view of the investor, it can sometimes be very risky or economically non-viable.
Political changes can also lead to expropriation, which is a scenario where the government will have control over one’s property and assets.
Negative Impact on the Country’s Investment
The rules that govern foreign exchange rates and direct investments might negatively have an impact on the investing country. Investment may be banned in some foreign markets, which means that it is impossible to pursue an inviting opportunity.
Modern-Day Economic Colonialism
Many third-world countries, or at least those with history of colonialism, worry that foreign direct investment would result in some kind of modern day economic colonialism, which exposes host countries and leave them vulnerable to foreign companies’ exploitations.
Disappearance of cottage and small scale industries
Some of the products produced in cottage and village industries and also under small scale industries had to disappear from the market due to the onslaught of the products coming from FDIs. Example: Multinational soft drinks.
Setback to The Trade Balance
FDI in retailing can upset the import balance, as large international retailers may prefer to source
majority of their products globally rather than investing in the local markets.
Contribution to the pollution
Foreign direct investments contribute to pollution problem in the country. The developed countries have shifted some of their pollution-borne industries to the developing countries. The major victim is automobile industries. Most of these are shifted to developing countries and thus they have escaped pollution.
Foreign Direct Investments are one of the reason for exchange crisis at times. During the year 2000, the Southeast Asian countries experienced currency crisis because of the presence of FDls. With inflation contributed by them, exports have dwindled resulting in heavy fall in the value of domestic currency. As a result of this, the FDIs started withdrawing their capital leading to an exchange crisis. Thus, too much dependence on FDls will create exchange crisis.
In all the countries where the FDls have made an inroad, there has been a cultural shock experienced by the local people, adopting a different culture alien to the country. The domestic culture either disappears or suffers a setback. This is felt in the family structure, social setup and erosion in the value system of the people. Importance given to human relations, hither to suffers a setback with the hi-fi style of living.
Monopoly in The Customer Market And Creation Of Cartels By The Global Players
Foreign players may create monopoly by providing products at discounted rates in the beginning to grab the market share by displacing domestic giants and after getting good market or monopoly in the market may create a cartel of global giants to exploit the customers by inducing price hike and customers would not get any option than to purchase at the available prices
Towering Effect on Real Estate Prices
The entry of global players may have towering impact on the real estate prices. With intensified fight for space in cities, the race may result in steep rise in real estate prices which could be counterproductive for the domestic players.
Huge Spread of Retail Chain Stores
Financially strong giants will spread their function at multiple location to cater to maximum markets with full fledge infrastructure which is not possible for domestic player to cater.
In order to capture the foreign market, the FDIs have gone to the extent of even corrupting the high officials or the political bosses in various countries. Lockheed scandal of Japan is an example. In certain countries, the FDIs influence the political setup for achieving their personal gains. Most of the Latin American countries have experienced such a problem. Example: Drug trafficking, laundering of money, etc.
Inflation in the Economy
The presence of FDIs has also contributed to the inflation in the country. They spend lot of money on advertisement and on consumer promotion. This is done at the cost of the consumers and the price is increased. They also form cartels to control the market and exploit the consumer. The biggest world cartel, OPEC is an example of FDI exploiting the consumers.
The introduction of TRIPs (Trade Related Intellectual Property Rights) and TRIMs (Trade Related Investment Measures) has restricted the production of certain products in other countries. For example, India cannot manufacture certain medicines without paying royalties to the country which has originally invented the medicine. The same thing applies to seeds which are used in agriculture. Thus, the developing countries are made to either import the products or produce them through FDIs at a higher cost. WTO (World Trade Organization) is in favor of FDIs.
World Bank and lMF Aid
Some of the developing countries have criticized the World Bank and IMF (International Monetary Fund) in extending assistance. There is a discrimination shown by these international agencies. Only those countries which accommodate FDIs will receive more assistance from these international institutions.
Convertibility of Currency
FDIs are insisting on total convertibility of currencies in under-developed countries as a prerequisite for investment. This may not be possible in many countries as there may not be sufficient foreign currency reserve to accommodate convertibility. In the absence of such a facility, it is dangerous to allow the FDIs as they may withdraw their investments the moment they find their investments unprofitable.
- India is expected to attract FDI worth US$ 120-160 billion per year by 2025, according to a CII and EY report.
- Further, as per a Deloitte report published in September 2021, India remains an attractive market for international investors both in terms of short-term and long-term prospects.
- FDI is important as India would require huge investments in the coming years to overhaul its infrastructure sector to boost growth. Healthy growth in foreign inflows helps maintain the balance of payments and the value of the rupee.
- However, foreign direct investment also carries risks, and it is highly important to evaluate the economic climate thoroughly before doing it.
- With the instruments of public policy in its hands, the government can try to ensure that the domestic and foreign players are approximately on an equal footing and that the domestic traders are not at an especial disadvantage. Japan has done this quite effectively.