IAS Gyan

Daily News Analysis


29th August, 2023 Economy

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Context: The National Financial Reporting Authority (NFRA) is to release a circular that will outline common deviations observed in the preparation of financial statements and statutory audits.


  • The purpose of this circular is to guide both company management and auditors about practices that should be strictly avoided. These deviations were identified through investigations and audit quality reviews conducted by NFRA over the past few years.
  • The aim is to address these issues and enhance corporate governance by encouraging adherence to proper financial reporting and auditing standards.
  • The circular will draw attention to various requirements that preparers of financial statements and auditors are obligated to follow under different statutes, including the Companies Act, accounting and auditing standards, rules, and ethical guidelines. It will also offer insights into how similar violations are approached by other regulatory bodies, such as the Public Company Accounting Oversight Board (PCAOB) in the United States.
  • Experts view this initiative positively, as it allows the industry and auditor community to learn from past cases and enhance their practices. The proposed approach will consolidate the outcomes of NFRA's disciplinary proceedings, helping audit firms and auditors understand and apply lessons from audit performance decisions, ultimately leading to improvements.

National Financial Reporting Authority (NFRA)


  • The concept of NFRA emerged after the Satyam scandal in 2009, which exposed significant financial irregularities and a lack of oversight in the auditing profession.
  • The Standing Committee on Finance proposed the establishment of NFRA in its 21st report, recognizing the need for an independent regulator to oversee financial reporting and auditing.
  • The Companies Act of 2013 provided the legal framework for the formation and functioning of NFRA. It was established in 2018 by the Government of India under the Companies Act, 2013.


  • Independent Regulatory Authority: NFRA operates as an independent regulatory authority separate from the government's control. This independence is crucial to ensure unbiased oversight of the auditing profession and to maintain the credibility of its regulatory actions.
  • Recommendations and Standards: NFRA has the authority to recommend accounting and auditing policies, as well as standards, for adoption in India. These recommendations play a vital role in aligning financial reporting practices with internationally accepted standards and best practices.
  • Investigations: One of NFRA's significant roles is to investigate cases of financial reporting irregularities and misconduct by auditors and audit firms. This investigative power helps uncover any wrongdoing in the financial reporting process and holds auditors and firms accountable for their actions.
  • Sanctions: NFRA possesses the authority to impose penalties and debarring measures on auditors and audit firms that are found to have violated accounting and auditing standards. These sanctions act as deterrents against unethical or negligent behaviour in the auditing profession.
  • Transparency: By focusing on transparency, accuracy, and reliability in financial reporting, NFRA contributes to bolstering investor confidence. When financial information is accurately and transparently presented, it helps investors make informed decisions and fosters trust in the financial markets.


  • Enhanced Credibility: NFRA's oversight of financial reporting and auditing practices contributes to the enhanced credibility of financial statements. When investors and stakeholders trust that financial information is accurate and reliable, they are more likely to make informed decisions, which is crucial for a healthy investment environment.
  • Improved Governance: The establishment of NFRA as an independent regulatory authority reduces the risk of conflicts of interest in the auditing process. Auditors can perform their duties without undue influence, ensuring that financial statements are assessed impartially. This improved governance fosters transparency and accountability.
  • Global Alignment: Adherence to international best practices and standards by NFRA brings India's financial reporting regulations in line with global norms. This alignment has the potential to attract more cross-border investments and facilitate comparisons between companies from different countries, making India's financial markets more attractive to international investors.
  • Detection and Deterrence: NFRA's ability to investigate cases of financial reporting irregularities and misconduct and impose sanctions serves as a deterrent against fraudulent practices. The presence of a regulatory body actively looking into such matters encourages ethical behaviour within the auditing profession, ultimately reducing the likelihood of financial scandals.


  • Resistance: There could be resistance from various stakeholders, especially audit firms, who might perceive increased oversight and the imposition of penalties as an additional regulatory burden. Balancing the need for enhanced regulatory measures with the concerns of these stakeholders requires effective communication and collaboration.
  • Resource Constraints: Ensuring that NFRA has the necessary resources, including skilled professionals and technical expertise, to effectively oversee a large number of companies and audits can be challenging. A lack of adequate resources could potentially hinder NFRA's ability to conduct thorough investigations and enforce standards.
  • Coordinated Approach: Coordinating with other regulatory bodies, such as the Securities and Exchange Board of India (SEBI) and the Reserve Bank of India (RBI), is crucial to avoid overlaps or gaps in jurisdiction. Establishing clear lines of communication and collaboration among regulatory authorities is necessary to ensure a comprehensive and cohesive regulatory framework.
  • Complexity: Financial reporting and auditing involve intricate technicalities and nuances. Conducting investigations and enforcement actions in this complex landscape can be time-consuming and resource-intensive. NFRA needs to have the expertise and patience to navigate through these complexities effectively.

Way Forward

  • Continuous Refinement: NFRA should adopt a dynamic approach to its rules and procedures. Regular reviews and refinements will allow the authority to adapt to changing business environments, technological advancements, and emerging challenges. This continuous improvement will help NFRA maintain its effectiveness and ensure that its regulations remain up-to-date and relevant.
  • Awareness and Capacity Building: Educating all relevant stakeholders, including companies, auditors, and the general public, about NFRA's role, functions, and significance is crucial. Creating awareness about the benefits of transparent and accurate financial reporting, as well as the importance of regulatory oversight, will foster cooperation and compliance with NFRA's regulations.
  • International Collaboration: Engaging with global standard-setting bodies and regulatory counterparts from other countries can facilitate the alignment of India's financial reporting and auditing practices with international norms. This collaboration can lead to the exchange of best practices, harmonization of standards, and a better understanding of global trends and challenges.
  • Balanced Approach: Striking the right balance between regulatory oversight and facilitating business growth is essential. NFRA should ensure that its regulatory actions support ethical practices and the credibility of financial reporting without creating unnecessary hurdles for legitimate business activities. This balanced approach will help nurture a healthy business environment while maintaining high standards of governance.


  • The establishment of NFRA is a significant step toward improving financial reporting and auditing practices in India. By ensuring transparency, accountability, and adherence to international standards, NFRA contributes to the overall health and trustworthiness of the Indian financial system. However, its success will depend on its ability to navigate challenges, engage stakeholders, and adapt to evolving economic and technological landscapes.


Q. Consider the following statements in the context of the National Financial Reporting Authority (NFRA):

1. It was established by the Reserve Bank of India.

2. It was established under the Companies Act 2013.

3. It develops accounting standards and auditing standards for companies in India.

4. It lacks the power to take disciplinary action against auditors and other professionals who violate accounting standards or auditing standards.

5. It is headed by a chairperson who is appointed by the RBI Governor.

How many of the above statement is/are correct?

A) Only two

B) Only three

C) Only four

D) All five

Answer: A


Statement 1 is incorrect: The National Financial Reporting Authority (NFRA) was constituted on 1st October 2018 by the Government of India under Sub Section (1) of Section 132 of the Companies Act, 2013.

Statement 2 is correct: The National Financial Reporting Authority (NFRA) is an independent regulator responsible for overseeing the quality of financial reporting of companies in India. It was established under the Companies Act, 2013 and commenced operations on May 1, 2018.

Statement 3 is correct and Statement 4 is incorrect: The NFRA has a number of powers and functions, including:

1. Developing and laying down accounting standards and auditing standards for companies in India.

2. Overseeing the implementation of accounting standards and auditing standards by companies in India.

3. Conducting inspections of companies in India to ensure compliance with accounting standards and auditing standards.

4. Taking disciplinary action against auditors and other professionals who violate accounting standards or auditing standards.

5.Issuing directions to companies in India to improve the quality of their financial reporting.

Statement 5 is incorrect: The NFRA is headed by a Chairperson who is appointed by the Central Government. The Chairperson is assisted by two full-time members and four part-time members. The NFRA has its headquarters in New Delhi and has regional offices in Mumbai, Kolkata, Chennai, and Ahmedabad.