IAS Gyan

Daily News Analysis


25th September, 2023 Economy

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Context: The decision by JPMorgan to include India in its Government Bond Index-Emerging Markets (GBI-EM) index has significant implications for India's economy and the global financial markets.


  • The Government Bond Index-Emerging Markets (GBI-EM) is a widely tracked index in the global financial market. It comprises government bonds issued by emerging market countries, and it serves as a benchmark for global investors to assess the performance of these bonds.
  • The index is maintained by prominent financial institutions, including JPMorgan, and it plays a crucial role in shaping international capital flows.

Features of the Government Bond Index-Emerging Markets (GBI-EM) index

Diverse Bond Inclusion

  • The GBI-EM index includes a wide variety of government bonds issued by emerging market economies. These countries can differ significantly in terms of their economic development, creditworthiness, and the size of their bond markets.
  • This diversity allows investors to access bonds from a range of emerging economies, each with its unique risk-return profile.

Global Benchmark

  • GBI-EM serves as a global benchmark for the emerging market debt segment. It is widely recognized and used by global investment funds, asset managers, and financial institutions.
  • Investment decisions and portfolio allocations in the emerging market debt space are often guided by this index. It provides a standard for evaluating the performance of investments in government bonds from emerging markets.

Risk Assessment

  • The GBI-EM index plays a crucial role in helping investors assess the risk associated with government bonds issued by emerging market countries.
  • By including bonds from various nations, investors can compare the risk and return characteristics of different countries' bonds. This helps them make informed investment decisions and manage risk effectively.
  • The index provides data and insights that enable investors to gauge the relative safety and potential yield of investments in emerging market debt.

Regular Updates

  • The GBI-EM index is not static; it undergoes periodic updates to reflect changes in the composition of bonds issued by emerging market countries.
  • These updates ensure that the index remains relevant and up-to-date with the evolving dynamics of emerging market economies and their bond markets.
  • Keeping the index current is essential for accurate benchmarking and investment analysis.

Significance of inclusion in the Government Bond Index-Emerging Markets (GBI-EM) index

Capital Inflows

  • Access to Global Capital: Inclusion in the GBI-EM index is a significant milestone for emerging market economies because it can lead to substantial capital inflows. Global investors closely follow the index's composition, and inclusion means that these investors are more likely to allocate funds to the country's government bonds.
  • Boost to International Capital Markets: When a country's bonds are part of the index, it increases the attractiveness of its debt instruments to international investors. This influx of capital can have a positive impact on the country's overall financial stability and liquidity in its bond market.

Market Visibility

  • Enhanced Reputation: Being included in a globally recognized index like GBI-EM elevates a country's reputation among international investors. It signifies that the country's bond market has reached a certain level of maturity, transparency, and attractiveness.
  • Increased Investor Confidence: Inclusion in the index can boost investor confidence in the country's economic policies and financial markets. This, in turn, can attract more foreign investment beyond government bonds, benefiting other segments of the economy.

Funding Options

  • Diversification of Funding Sources: Inclusion in the GBI-EM index provides emerging market economies with an additional and diversified source of financing. This is particularly crucial for countries looking to manage fiscal deficits, finance infrastructure projects, or stimulate economic growth.
  • Reduced Borrowing Costs: Access to global capital markets can potentially lead to lower borrowing costs for the country. As demand for its government bonds increases due to index inclusion, bond yields may decrease, resulting in cost savings for the government.

India has taken several steps to secure inclusion in the GBI-EM index

Foreign Investment Restrictions

  • In 2020, India took a significant step by removing foreign investment restrictions on some government securities. These restrictions limited the access of foreign investors to certain categories of Indian government bonds.
  • The removal of these restrictions was a crucial move to make Indian government bonds more accessible and attractive to foreign investors. It aimed to align India's bond market practices with international standards, making it easier for foreign investors to participate.

Engagement with Global Index Providers

  • India actively engaged with global index providers, including JPMorgan, which maintains the GBI-EM index. This engagement involved discussions and negotiations to explore the possibility of including Indian government bonds in the index.
  • These discussions demonstrated India's commitment to being part of the global financial markets and its recognition of the importance of index inclusion for attracting foreign investment.

Challenges associated with India's inclusion in the Government Bond Index-Emerging Markets (GBI-EM) index

Market Competition

  • Outflows from Other Countries: As India's government bonds are included in the GBI-EM index, it can lead to capital outflows from other countries' government bonds that are part of the index. These countries may experience reductions in their index weightings, potentially impacting their bond markets.
  • Impact on Yield and Pricing: Increased competition for capital allocation can affect bond yields and pricing in the affected countries. As investors reallocate funds to India, it may lead to adjustments in bond prices and yields in other emerging market economies.

Foreign Investor Participation

  • Addressing Investor Concerns: Attracting foreign investors to Indian government bonds requires addressing various concerns and barriers. These include issues related to tax policies, regulatory frameworks, and currency risks. Investors seek clarity and stability in these areas to feel confident about investing in a foreign bond market.
  • Currency Risk Management: Currency risk is a significant consideration for foreign investors. India needs to have mechanisms in place to manage and mitigate currency risk, such as providing hedging options or ensuring a stable exchange rate environment.
  • Regulatory Clarity: Clear and consistent regulatory policies are essential to provide foreign investors with a sense of security. Regulatory changes that affect foreign investment can lead to uncertainty and may deter investors.
  • Taxation Policies: Taxation policies, including withholding tax rates on interest income, can impact the attractiveness of Indian government bonds to foreign investors. Favorable tax treatment can encourage higher participation.

Way forward for India following its inclusion in the Government Bond Index-Emerging Markets (GBI-EM) index

Gradual Inclusion

  • India should adhere to the incremental inclusion process outlined by JPMorgan. This method involves adding Indian bonds to the index in 1% increments over ten months.
  • Gradual inclusion allows for a smoother adjustment for both the market and investors. It provides time for the market to absorb the increased exposure to Indian bonds and minimizes potential disruptions.


  • Analysts anticipate front-loading of investments in Indian bonds ahead of the official inclusion date in the GBI-EM index. Front-loading refers to investors proactively increasing their exposure to Indian bonds in anticipation of their inclusion.
  • India can benefit from this front-loading by attracting foreign capital earlier, helping bridge any demand-supply gap in its balance of payments. Policymakers should be prepared to manage these capital flows effectively.

Continued Engagement

  • India should maintain active engagement with global index providers like JPMorgan and continue to collaborate with them. This ongoing engagement can help ensure that India's bonds remain in the index and attract sustained foreign investment.
  • Addressing concerns and challenges faced by foreign investors is crucial. India should work on creating a favourable investment environment, including providing clarity on regulatory policies, currency risk management, and taxation.

Infrastructure Development

  • Investing in the infrastructure of the bond market is essential. India should focus on improving market infrastructure, including trading platforms, clearing and settlement systems, and credit rating agencies.
  • A well-developed bond market infrastructure can enhance investor confidence and facilitate a smooth investment process.

Fiscal Responsibility

  • India should continue to pursue fiscal responsibility and transparency in its economic policies. This includes managing fiscal deficits and ensuring responsible borrowing practices.
  • Maintaining a sound fiscal position can boost investor confidence and reduce concerns about the country's creditworthiness.

Diversified Investment Products

  • India can consider offering a diversified range of investment products to attract a broader base of foreign investors. These products could include bonds of varying maturities, inflation-linked bonds, and green bonds to cater to different investor preferences.


  • India's inclusion in the GBI-EM index presents a significant opportunity to attract foreign investment into its government bonds. To make the most of this opportunity, India should follow a strategic approach, including gradual inclusion, effective management of capital flows, and ongoing engagement with global index providers. Addressing investor concerns and improving market infrastructure are key to maintaining investor confidence and ensuring long-term success in the global bond market.


Q. What are the significant implications of India's inclusion in the Government Bond Index-Emerging Markets (GBI-EM) index, both for India's economy and the global financial markets, and what steps should India take to maximize the benefits and address potential challenges associated with this inclusion?