IAS Gyan

Daily News Analysis


2nd September, 2023 Environment

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  • Funga: UN wants us all to say it along with ‘Flora & Fauna’.
  • The initiative to incorporate the term "funga" into discussions about biodiversity alongside "flora and fauna" represents an important step in raising awareness about the significance of fungi in ecosystems and human life 


  • Fungi's Ecological Importance: Fungi play crucial roles in ecosystems as decomposers, mycorrhizal partners with plants, and in nutrient cycling. They are essential for the health and balance of ecosystems, impacting both flora and fauna.
  • The Power of Language: Language shapes our perception of the world and influences our attitudes and actions. By adding "funga" to discussions about biodiversity, we acknowledge the importance of fungi and emphasize their role in the natural world.
  • Scientific and Conservation Recognition: The International Union for Conservation of Nature (IUCN) and the United Nations Biodiversity recognize the importance of incorporating fungi into conservation strategies and communication. This recognition can lead to better conservation efforts and policy development.
  • Holistic Understanding: Recognizing fungi alongside plants and animals promotes a more holistic understanding of ecosystems. It highlights that biodiversity encompasses not only the macroscopic world but also the often overlooked microorganisms like fungi.
  • Promoting Fungal Conservation: By elevating fungi's status in conservation discussions, there is a greater likelihood of efforts to protect and conserve fungal diversity, which is critical for maintaining healthy ecosystems.
  • Indigenous and Local Perspectives: Indigenous and local perspectives on conservation and biodiversity are essential. Language should be decolonized to reflect the values and knowledge of these communities and to avoid harmful practices in the name of conservation.

Introduction to Fungi

  • Fungi are eukaryotic microorganisms that belong to their own kingdom, distinct from plants, animals, and bacteria.
  • They are characterized by their heterotrophic mode of nutrition, cell walls made of chitin, and a unique life cycle involving spore formation.

Key Characteristics

  • Heterotrophic: Fungi are unable to produce their own food and obtain nutrients by absorbing organic matter from their environment.
  • Cell Wall: Unlike plants, fungi have cell walls composed of chitin, a tough polysaccharide.
  • Growth Forms: Fungi can exist as single-celled yeasts, multicellular molds, or elaborate fruiting bodies like mushrooms.
  • Reproduction: They reproduce both sexually and asexually through the formation of spores.
  • Diversity: Fungi exhibit a wide range of forms, sizes, and ecological roles.

Fungal Taxonomy

  • Zygomycota: Includes common bread molds.
  • Ascomycota: Contains sac fungi and yeasts.
  • Basidiomycota: Includes mushrooms, toadstools, and rusts.
  • Glomeromycota: Arbuscular mycorrhizal fungi that form symbiotic associations with plants.
  • Chytridiomycota: Aquatic fungi known for their flagellated spores.
  • Microsporidia: Intracellular parasites, often causing diseases in animals.

Examples of Common Fungal Species

  • Saccharomyces cerevisiae: Brewer's yeast used in baking and brewing.
  • Agaricus bisporus: Common edible mushroom.
  • Penicillium: Source of penicillin and blue cheese.
  • Mycobacterium tuberculosis: The causative agent of tuberculosis.
  • Candida albicans: An opportunistic human pathogen causing yeast infections.

Fungal Structure and Function

Cellular Structure

Fungi have a well-defined cellular structure, with nuclei, mitochondria, and other organelles. The cell wall, made of chitin, provides rigidity and protection.


Fungi reproduce both sexually and asexually through the formation of spores. Sexual reproduction involves the fusion of specialized sexual structures. Asexual reproduction occurs through the budding of yeasts or the formation of spores in molds.

Nutrition and Ecology

Fungi play critical roles in nutrient cycling as decomposers, breaking down dead organic matter. Mycorrhizal fungi form symbiotic relationships with plant roots, aiding in nutrient absorption. Some fungi are parasitic, causing diseases in plants and animals.

Fungi in Nature

Ecological Roles

  • Decomposers: Fungi recycle organic matter, releasing nutrients back into ecosystems.
  • Mutualists: Mycorrhizal fungi form beneficial partnerships with plants.
  • Pathogens: Fungal diseases can impact plants, animals, and humans.

Symbiotic Relationships

  • Mycorrhizae: Fungi enhance plant nutrient uptake while receiving sugars from plants.
  • Lichens: Symbiotic associations between fungi and photosynthetic partners (algae or cyanobacteria).

Decomposers and Recyclers

  • Fungi are essential in breaking down complex organic compounds like lignin and cellulose.
  • This decomposition process is crucial for soil formation and nutrient cycling.

Pathogenic Fungi

Human and Plant Diseases

  • Fungal pathogens can cause diseases in humans (e.g., athlete's foot, candidiasis) and plants (e.g., rusts, powdery mildews).
  • Opportunistic fungal infections can be severe in immunocompromised individuals.

Fungal Pathogens in Agriculture

  • Crop diseases caused by fungi can result in significant economic losses.
  • Effective management strategies include crop rotation and fungicides.

Beneficial Fungi

Importance in Food Production

  • Yeasts are used in baking, brewing, and fermenting various food products.
  • Fungi are essential in cheese production (e.g., Penicillium molds in blue cheese).

Biotechnological Applications

  • Production of antibiotics (e.g., penicillin) and enzymes for industrial processes.
  • Genetic engineering and bioremediation applications.

Environmental Remediation

  • Fungi can degrade pollutants and contaminants, contributing to environmental cleanup efforts.

Fungal Diversity

Mushrooms and Toadstools

  • Fungi in the Basidiomycota phylum produce the familiar mushroom and toadstool fruiting bodies.

Yeasts and Molds

  • Yeasts are unicellular fungi used in fermentation and biotechnology.
  • Molds form multicellular, filamentous structures often seen on decaying food.

Cryptomycota and Other Lesser-Known Groups

  • Ongoing research reveals new fungal groups, expanding our understanding of fungal diversity.

Reproduction and Life Cycle

Asexual and Sexual Reproduction

  • Asexual reproduction involves the rapid production of spores, allowing fungi to colonize new areas.
  • Sexual reproduction combines genetic material from different mating types, increasing genetic diversity.

Spore Formation and Dissemination

  • Spores are the reproductive units of fungi, dispersed by wind, water, or animals.
  • Germination of spores leads to the growth of new fungal mycelia.

Fungal Interactions with Humans

Culinary Uses (Edible Mushrooms)

  • Many cultures worldwide incorporate mushrooms into their cuisines.
  • Edible mushrooms like Agaricus bisporus and Shiitake (Lentinula edodes) are popular.

Mycophobia and Mycophilia

  • Mycophobia refers to the fear or aversion to mushrooms and fungi.
  • Mycophilia represents an affinity or interest in mushrooms and mycology.

Mycotoxins and Food Safety

  • Some fungi produce mycotoxins that can contaminate food, posing health risks.
  • Proper food storage and monitoring are essential for food safety.

Scientific Study of Fungi

Mycology as a Field of Science

  • Mycologists study fungi and their biology, taxonomy, and ecology.
  • Advances in DNA sequencing have revolutionized fungal taxonomy.

Emerging Fungal Diseases and Global Threats

  • Emerging fungal diseases in wildlife and amphibians highlight the need for monitoring and research.
  • Fungal threats to agriculture and food security are of global concern.


In conclusion, incorporating "funga" into discussions about biodiversity is a positive and necessary step toward acknowledging the vital role of fungi in the natural world. It reflects a growing awareness of the importance of holistic, inclusive, and environmentally-conscious language in conservation and biology.


Q. Which of the following statements about fungi is true?

1. Fungi are photosynthetic organisms.

2. Yeasts are a type of fungi commonly used in baking and brewing.

3. Fungi belong to the Plantae kingdom.


A) Only Statement 1 is true.

B) Only Statement 2 is true.

C) Only Statement 3 is true.

D) Statements 2 and 3 are true.

Answer: B)