IAS Gyan

Daily News Analysis


16th September, 2023 Economy

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Picture Courtesy: pmmsy.dof.gov.in

Context: The Pradhan Mantri Matsya Sampada Yojana (PMMSY) has completed three years of implementation.

Pradhan Mantri Matsya Sampada Yojana (PMMSY)


  • The Pradhan Mantri Matsya Sampada Yojana (PMMSY) is a flagship scheme initiated by the Government of India with the aim of fostering sustainable development in the fisheries sector.
  • It was launched as part of the AatmaNirbhar Bharat Package, the scheme spans a period of five years, from FY 2020-21 to FY 2024-25, with an estimated investment of Rs. 20,050 crores.

Features of the Pradhan Mantri Matsya Sampada Yojana (PMMSY)

Funding Allocation

  • The funding allocation under PMMSY is designed to vary depending on the region.
  • In North Eastern and Himalayan States, a substantial central share of 90% is provided, with the remaining 10% as the state's contribution.
  • For other states, the central share is 60%, while the state's share is 40%. Union Territories, on the other hand, receive 100% funding from the central government.

Implementing Agencies

  • PMMSY is executed through a range of implementing agencies, including the Central Government and its affiliated entities, notably the National Fisheries Development Board. State and Union Territory Governments are actively involved, along with State Fisheries Development Boards.


  • The primary objectives of PMMSY are comprehensive and multifaceted. The scheme is aimed at addressing critical gaps within the fisheries sector. These gaps encompass areas such as boosting production and productivity, developing essential infrastructure, modernizing the sector, strengthening the entire value chain, ensuring traceability, establishing effective fisheries management, and enhancing the welfare of fishers.
  • PMMSY also introduces innovative elements, including fishing vessel insurance, support for vessel upgrades, and initiatives to promote aquaculture in challenging environments.

Cluster-Based Approach

  • PMMSY is notably characterized by its cluster or area-based approach. This approach fosters strong linkages across the different stages of the fisheries value chain.
  • The scheme seeks to create synergies between various players in the sector, promoting collaboration and shared resources. Of particular note is the focus on generating employment opportunities through specific activities, such as seaweed and ornamental fish cultivation.

Quality and Diversification

  • Quality enhancement is a pivotal aspect of PMMSY. The scheme prioritizes improvements in the quality of brood, seed, and feed, which are vital for sustainable fish production. Furthermore, PMMSY encourages species diversification to broaden the range of fish produced.
  • Critical infrastructure development is also emphasized to support these initiatives, and marketing networks are being created to ensure that the products reach consumers effectively.

Significance of the Pradhan Mantri Matsya Sampada Yojana (PMMSY)

  • Fish Production Boost: PMMSY holds significant importance as it aims to substantially increase fish production. It envisions raising the production from 13.75 million metric tons in 2018-19 to an impressive 22 million metric tons by the year 2024-25.
  • Annual Growth Rate: The scheme has set ambitious goals for the fisheries sector, targeting an annual growth rate of around 9% in fish production. This growth is expected to contribute significantly to the Gross Value Added (GVA) of the fisheries sector, with projections indicating an increase from 7.28% in 2018-19 to approximately 9% by 2024-25.
  • Export Earnings: PMMSY aims to double India's export earnings in the fisheries sector. The goal is to achieve export earnings of approximately Rs. 1,00,000 crores by 2024-25, a significant increase from the Rs. 46,589 crores recorded in 2018-19.
  • Aquaculture Productivity: A key focus of PMMSY is the enhancement of aquaculture productivity. The scheme seeks to raise the national average from 3 tons per hectare to about 5 tons per hectare, thereby increasing the efficiency and yield of aquaculture practices.
  • Post-Harvest Loss Reduction: PMMSY addresses the issue of post-harvest losses, which can be as high as 20-25%. The scheme aims to reduce these losses to around 10%, ensuring that a greater portion of the fish resources is utilized effectively.
  • Income Doubling: One of the significant goals of PMMSY is to double the incomes of fishers and fish farmers. This initiative will directly benefit those engaged in the fisheries sector, improving their livelihoods and economic well-being.
  • Employment Generation: PMMSY is expected to generate approximately 15 lakh direct employment opportunities in the fisheries sector. Additionally, it will create three times that number of indirect employment opportunities along the supply and value chain.
  • Private Investment and Entrepreneurship: The scheme actively encourages private investment and fosters the growth of entrepreneurship in the fisheries sector. This will not only boost the sector's overall development but also contribute to economic growth at large.

Steps taken to implement PMMSY

  • Financial Allocation: Adequate financial resources are being allocated to ensure the successful implementation of the PMMSY. These funds are utilized to support various components of the scheme, including infrastructure development, capacity building, and technology adoption.
  • Capacity Building: The government has initiated comprehensive training and capacity-building programs aimed at enhancing the skills and knowledge of fishers and fish farmers. These programs provide them with the necessary expertise to adopt modern and sustainable practices in fisheries and aquaculture.
  • Infrastructure Development: Substantial investments are currently being made in infrastructure development, which includes the establishment of cold storage facilities, processing units, and marketing facilities. These infrastructure improvements are crucial for enhancing post-harvest management and reducing losses in the supply chain.
  • Technology Adoption: The promotion and adoption of modern technologies and best practices are actively encouraged within the fisheries and aquaculture sectors. This approach is geared towards boosting production and productivity while ensuring sustainability in these industries.
  • Promotion of Aquaculture: Special emphasis is placed on the promotion of aquaculture in challenging environments, such as saline and alkaline areas. Innovative techniques and practices are being introduced to enable fish farming in these regions, diversifying sources of income for local communities.
  • Employment Generation: The PMMSY places a strong focus on activities like seaweed cultivation and ornamental fish farming as viable options for employment generation. These initiatives not only create job opportunities but also contribute to the overall growth and development of the fisheries and aquaculture sectors.

Challenges that require ongoing attention and strategic solutions

Resource Sustainability

  • The foremost challenge is to ensure the sustainable utilization of fisheries resources. This entails preventing over-exploitation, which could lead to resource depletion and long-term ecological damage.
  • Striking a balance between meeting the demands of the fishing industry and safeguarding the health of aquatic ecosystems remains a priority.

Infrastructure Gaps

  • The development of infrastructure, especially in remote and challenging terrains such as coastal regions and hilly areas, presents logistical complexities.
  • Building necessary facilities like cold storage, processing units, and marketing centres in these regions requires careful planning and execution to bridge the existing infrastructure gaps effectively.

Technological Adoption

  • Encouraging traditional fishers, who have been following conventional practices for generations, to embrace modern techniques can encounter resistance. The challenge lies in convincing and training these fishers to adopt contemporary, sustainable methods that enhance productivity while maintaining resource sustainability.
  • Continuous education and outreach programs are crucial in addressing this challenge.

Environmental Impact

  • The expansion of aquaculture, while offering economic benefits, must be closely monitored for its environmental impact. This challenge involves considering the potential negative effects such as water pollution, habitat destruction, and disease outbreaks in aquaculture systems.
  • It is imperative to implement environmentally friendly practices and regulations to mitigate these adverse consequences and promote sustainable aquaculture.

Way Forward

Continued Investment

  • Sustained financial commitment is imperative to ensure the effective implementation of PMMSY.
  • Adequate resources must be allocated to fund infrastructure development, capacity building, research, and development of sustainable practices.
  • Consistent funding will enable the scheme to operate smoothly and achieve its intended outcomes.

Robust Monitoring

  • Implementing a comprehensive monitoring and evaluation system is crucial.
  • Regular assessments of the scheme's progress, including the impact on fisheries resources and the environment, will provide valuable insights. These insights can inform adjustments to the program, ensuring that it remains aligned with its sustainability goals and adapts to changing circumstances.

Active Stakeholder Participation

  • Involving various stakeholders is key to the success of PMMSY. Engaging fishing communities, private sector entities, research institutions, and civil society organizations in decision-making and implementation processes is vital.
  • Collaboration fosters a sense of ownership and collective responsibility, leading to more effective and sustainable outcomes.

Sustainability as a Priority

  • Sustainability should be the overarching principle guiding policy and implementation efforts.
  • Measures to prevent overfishing, protect aquatic ecosystems, and minimize the environmental footprint of aquaculture should be integrated into every facet of the scheme.
  • Long-term resource management plans and conservation strategies should be developed and implemented.

Environmental Stewardship

  • Promoting responsible and eco-friendly practices within the fisheries and aquaculture sectors is essential.
  • Strict regulations and incentives should encourage practices that minimize negative environmental impacts, such as waste management, water quality control, and habitat preservation.


  • The scheme should prioritize inclusivity by ensuring that benefits reach marginalized and small-scale fishers and fish farmers.
  • Special programs and support should be designed to address their unique needs, empowering them to participate actively in the growth of the sector.


  • The Pradhan Mantri Matsya Sampada Yojana (PMMSY) holds the potential to drive sustainable growth in India's fisheries and aquaculture sectors. While challenges exist, continued investment, effective monitoring, stakeholder engagement, and a focus on sustainability are critical for success. Prioritizing environmental stewardship, inclusivity, and responsible practices will pave the way for a prosperous and ecologically responsible future. PMMSY stands as a testament to India's commitment to balancing economic growth with environmental preservation, ensuring a brighter future for its fisheries and aquaculture industries.

Must Read Articles:

PRADHAN MANTRI MATSYA SAMPADA YOJNA: https://www.iasgyan.in/daily-current-affairs/pradhan-mantri-matsya-sampada-yojna 


Q. What are the key features of the Pradhan Mantri Matsya Sampada Yojana and how significant is it in promoting India's fisheries sector? What impact has this scheme had on the livelihoods of fishermen and the overall economy, and what challenges does it currently face? What is the way forward to ensure the continued success and sustainability of this initiative?