IAS Gyan

Daily News Analysis


1st March, 2024 International News


Copyright infringement not intended

Picture Courtesy: https://www.cfr.org/backgrounder/what-hamas

Context: The resignation of the Palestinian Authority (PA) government in February 2024 was a significant event with several contributing factors and potential consequences.

Possible Reasons for Resignation

  • To facilitate the formation of a broader consensus among Palestinians regarding political arrangements after the Israeli-Hamas conflict in Gaza.
  • Mounting pressure from the United States on the PA to reform and restructure for potential post-war involvement in Gaza governance.
  • Inability to bridge the divide between Hamas (ruling Gaza) and Fatah (dominating the PA).

About Palestinian Authority (PA)

  • The Palestinian Authority (PA) is an administrative body established as a result of the Oslo Accords, a series of agreements between Israel and the Palestine Liberation Organization (PLO) signed in the 1990s.
  • The Oslo Accords aimed to address the Israeli-Palestinian conflict by outlining a framework for the establishment of a Palestinian self-governing authority in parts of the West Bank and Gaza Strip.

Formation and Oslo Accords

  • The Oslo Accords were signed in the early 1990s, particularly the Oslo I Accord in 1993 and the Oslo II Accord in 1995.
  • The agreements envisioned a phased process leading to the establishment of a Palestinian Authority with limited self-governance in parts of the West Bank and Gaza.


  • The PA was granted limited control over certain areas in the West Bank and Gaza Strip, referred to as Areas A and B, with varying degrees of autonomy.
  • Area A: Full civil and security control by the Palestinian Authority.
  • Area B: Palestinian civil control, with joint Israeli-Palestinian security control.

Government Structure

  • The PA has a President, who is also the Chairman of the Palestine Liberation Organization (PLO), and a Prime Minister.
  • The President is the head of state, and the Prime Minister is responsible for the day-to-day administration.

International Recognition

  • The Palestinian Authority is recognized by many countries and international organizations as the representative of the Palestinian people.
  • It sought international recognition of the State of Palestine, and in 2012, the United Nations General Assembly granted Palestine non-member observer state status.

Relations with Israel

  • The relationship between the PA and Israel has been complex, marked by periods of cooperation, negotiation, and conflict.
  • Issues such as the status of Jerusalem, borders, refugees, and the establishment of a sovereign Palestinian state remain key points of contention.

Hamas and Gaza

  • The PA has had a complicated relationship with the militant group Hamas, which won the 2006 legislative elections.
  • Following disputes, violent clashes, and the 2007 Gaza coup, Hamas took control of the Gaza Strip, while the PA retained control in parts of the West Bank.


Key Points


Geographical Location

Palestine refers to a historical and present-day region in the Middle East, located between the Mediterranean Sea and the Jordan River.

Governance & Status

There is no single, unified Palestinian state. The Palestinian territories consist of:

West Bank: Currently under Israeli occupation, but with limited Palestinian self-rule in certain areas.

Gaza Strip: A coastal territory under the control of the Hamas government, blockaded by Israel & Egypt.

The final status of both territories is highly disputed and the subject of peace negotiations.


The primary ethnic group is Palestinian Arabs, who are predominantly Muslim with a Christian minority. A significant global Palestinian diaspora also exists. There is also a substantial Israeli population, mainly Jewish, living in settlements within the West Bank.

Historical Context

Palestine has a long and complex history marked by various empires and rulers. Key modern historical points include:

Zionism: The late 19th-century nationalist movement for a Jewish homeland in the region.

British Mandate: The period of British rule (1920-1948) saw rising tensions between Jewish and Arab populations.

1948 War: Following Israel's declaration of independence, war erupted, leading to the displacement of many Palestinians (known as the Nakba).

1967 War: Israel captured the West Bank, Gaza Strip, and other territories.

Ongoing Occupation: Israel's ongoing presence in and control over the West Bank is a point of major dispute.

Key Issues in the Israeli-Palestinian Conflict

Borders: Disputes over the final borders of a potential Palestinian state and of Israel.

Jerusalem: Both Israelis and Palestinians claim Jerusalem as their capital; the city has holy sites for Judaism, Islam, and Christianity.

Palestinian Refugees: Millions of Palestinians were displaced in the 1948 conflict and their descendants; their right of return is disputed.

Israeli Settlements: Israeli settlements in the West Bank are considered illegal by most of the international community and a major obstacle to peace.

Security: Continuing violence and security concerns for both Palestinians and Israelis.

Peace Efforts

Decades of negotiations and peace proposals, including:

Oslo Accords (1993): Set up the Palestinian Authority but failed to resolve final status issues.

Two-State Solution: The most widely proposed solution, envisioning an independent Israel and Palestine existing side-by-side. However, prospects for this solution seem increasingly diminished.


  • The Palestinian Authority is a self-governing body established through the Oslo Accords, with the aim of achieving a peaceful resolution to the Israeli-Palestinian conflict. However, political, territorial, and economic challenges persist, and the quest for lasting peace continues to be a complex and multifaceted issue.

Must Read Articles:

INDIA’S STAND ON THE ISRAEL-PALESTINE ISSUE: https://www.iasgyan.in/daily-current-affairs/indias-stand-on-the-israel-palestine-issue


Q. How does India's stance on the Israel-Palestine issue impact it’s broader diplomatic relations, both in the Middle East and globally, and how does it influence India's standing in international forums?