IAS Gyan

Daily News Analysis


12th February, 2024 Science and Technology


Disclaimer: Copyright infringement not intended.


The development of new niche base station solutions by the IIITB COMET Foundation (COMET), Bengaluru, represents a significant stride towards realizing the government's vision of affordable connectivity for all.


  • The aim is to develop high-speed and reliable connectivity solutions at a viable cost for unconnected and remote areas, aligning with the government's vision of ensuring connectivity for all.
  • The base station solutions are designed for Open Radio Access Network (ORAN), a critical component of next-generation telecommunications infrastructure.
  • ORAN solutions disaggregate software and hardware components, making it easier, efficient, and economically viable to provide internet access in remote areas.

Features and Benefits

  • Cost-Effectiveness: By breaking down Radio Access Network (RAN) functions and removing vendor lock-in, Open RAN solutions help reduce network costs and complexity, making connectivity more affordable.
  • Interoperability: Open RAN facilitates smooth interoperation between cellular network equipment provided by different vendors, promoting competition and innovation.
  • Spectral and Energy Efficiency: The ORAN base station solutions developed by COMET focus on creating spectral and energy-efficient wireless communications technology for 5G and 5G-Advanced radio networks.
  • Capacity Enhancement: The introduction of revolutionary ORAN technology, such as harnessing multiple antennas on cell towers, promises to enhance cell coverage and boost capacity by up to three-fold compared to existing 4G networks.

About ORAN

  • Open RAN refers to a disaggregated approach to building radio access networks (RANs) that allows for interoperability between hardware and software components from different vendors.
  • It aims to break down the traditional monolithic RAN architecture, enabling network operators to mix and match components from various suppliers.


  • RAN Hardware: This includes baseband units (BBUs), remote radio units (RRUs), antennas, and other physical equipment used to transmit and receive wireless signals.
  • RAN Software: Software-defined components responsible for controlling and managing the RAN hardware, including radio resource management (RRM), beamforming, and spectrum allocation.
  • Open Interfaces: Standardized interfaces that allow different hardware and software components to communicate and interoperate, facilitating vendor-neutral deployments.


  • Vendor Neutrality: Open RAN enables network operators to select best-of-breed components from multiple vendors, promoting competition and innovation.
  • Interoperability: Standardized interfaces ensure compatibility between different components, reducing vendor lock-in and allowing for more flexible network deployments.
  • Cost Reduction: By leveraging commercial off-the-shelf (COTS) hardware and open-source software, Open RAN can potentially lower deployment and operational costs compared to proprietary solutions.
  • Faster Innovation: With an open ecosystem, developers can more easily introduce new features, services, and optimizations, accelerating the pace of innovation in RAN technology.


  • Performance and Optimization: Ensuring that disaggregated components work seamlessly together and deliver the required performance levels can be challenging, particularly for latency-sensitive applications like ultra-reliable low-latency communications (URLLC).
  • Integration Complexity: Integrating components from multiple vendors and managing interoperability issues requires robust testing and validation processes.
  • Security Concerns: Open RAN introduces new security considerations, as the disaggregation of hardware and software may increase the attack surface and complexity of securing the network.
  • Standardization: Developing and maintaining open interfaces and standards is essential for the success of Open RAN but requires collaboration among industry stakeholders and standards bodies.


  • Diversification of Supply Chain: Open RAN aims to reduce reliance on a small number of traditional vendors, promoting a more diverse and competitive ecosystem of RAN suppliers.
  • Flexibility and Innovation: By enabling interoperability and encouraging competition, Open RAN can drive innovation and offer network operators greater flexibility in designing and optimizing their networks.
  • Global Connectivity: Open RAN has the potential to democratize access to wireless technology by lowering barriers to entry for new vendors and fostering the deployment of mobile networks in underserved areas.
  • 5G Evolution: As 5G networks continue to evolve and expand, Open RAN provides a framework for deploying and scaling next-generation RAN infrastructure in a cost-effective and efficient manner.


The development of new niche base station solutions by COMET represents a significant milestone in advancing telecommunications infrastructure in India. By focusing on affordability, interoperability, and efficiency, these solutions contribute to bridging the digital divide and empowering communities with access to connectivity.


Q. Open RAN represents a paradigm shift in the design and deployment of wireless networks, offering the promise of increased flexibility, interoperability, and innovation. Elaborate. (15 marks)