IAS Gyan

Daily News Analysis


12th September, 2023 Economy

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Context: The United Nations Food and Agriculture Organization (FAO) reported that the world food price index for food commodities fell to a new two-year low in August. This decline reversed a rebound that was observed in the previous month.


  • The FAO's price index, which tracks globally traded food commodities, averaged 121.4 points in August, compared to a revised 124.0 points for the previous month. The July reading had initially been reported as 123.9, representing a rebound from a two-year low in June.
  • The August figure was the lowest since March 2021 and marked a 24% decrease from the all-time high reached in March 2022 following Russia's invasion of Ukraine.
  • The overall index decline was driven by decreases in the prices of dairy products, vegetable oils, meat, and cereals, despite a significant increase in the FAO's rice benchmark to a 15-year high due to Indian export restrictions 

World Food Price Index


  • The World Food Price Index is a key metric that tracks the prices of globally traded food commodities. It is published by the Food and Agriculture Organization (FAO) of the United Nations on a regular basis, typically on a monthly or quarterly basis.
  • The Index was established to monitor and report on the price movements of essential food commodities in international markets.


Comprehensive Basket

  • The World Food Price Index tracks a comprehensive basket of food commodities. This basket is carefully selected to represent a wide range of globally traded food products. The inclusion of these commodities is essential because they are considered staples and have a significant impact on both food production and consumption worldwide. The specific commodities typically included in the index are:
    • Cereals: This category includes grains like wheat, rice, and maize (corn), which are fundamental staples in many diets around the world.
    • Dairy Products: Dairy products encompass items such as milk, cheese, and butter, which are important sources of nutrition and protein.
    • Meat: Meat commodities like beef, poultry, and pork are widely traded and constitute essential sources of animal protein in diets.
    • Vegetable Oils: Vegetable oils, such as soybean oil, palm oil, and sunflower oil, are used in cooking and food processing globally.
    • Sugar: Sugar is a widely consumed sweetener and ingredient in many food and beverage products.

Monthly Updates

  • The World Food Price Index is updated on a regular basis, typically on a monthly schedule. This frequent updating allows policymakers, traders, businesses, and the public to stay informed about the latest developments in global food markets.
  • Monthly updates are especially crucial because they capture short-term price fluctuations and trends, helping stakeholders make timely decisions related to food security, trade, and investment.

Weighted Averages

  • The index calculates weighted averages of individual commodity prices within the basket. These weights reflect the relative importance of each commodity in international food trade. The concept of weighted averages recognizes that some commodities have a more substantial impact on global food prices due to their higher trade volumes or greater significance in diets worldwide.
  • The use of weighted averages ensures that the index reflects the overall price movements of these commodities more accurately. For example, if wheat and rice are more heavily traded and essential staples in global diets compared to other commodities like sugar, their prices will have a more significant

Significance of the World Food Price Index

Early Warning

  • Food Price Crises: One of the primary roles of the World Food Price Index is to serve as an early warning system for potential food price crises. Sharp and sustained increases in food prices can indicate underlying issues in the global food supply chain. These issues could be triggered by factors like adverse weather conditions, supply chain disruptions, or geopolitical tensions.
  • Impact on Vulnerable Populations: Food price crises can have severe consequences, particularly for vulnerable and low-income populations. When the prices of essential food items rise significantly, it can lead to reduced food access and affordability, potentially resulting in hunger and malnutrition.

Policy Planning

  • Informed Decision-Making: Governments and international organizations rely on the World Food Price Index to make informed policy decisions related to food security, trade, and agricultural production. When the index detects upward or downward trends in food prices, policymakers can adjust strategies and interventions accordingly.
  • Targeted Interventions: For instance, if the index indicates rising prices for a particular staple food item, governments may implement measures such as subsidies or food assistance programs to mitigate the impact on vulnerable populations.

Market Signals

  • Strategic Decision-Making: The index provides valuable information to traders, businesses, and investors operating in global food markets. It serves as a critical tool for these stakeholders to make strategic decisions based on price trends. Traders can adjust their buying and selling strategies, businesses can plan for production and pricing, and investors can assess opportunities in the food sector.
  • Risk Management: By monitoring the index, market participants can manage risks associated with price volatility. Understanding the direction of food prices can help them hedge against potential losses or capitalize on opportunities.

Global Food Security

  • Supply and Demand Balance: Fluctuations in food prices can directly impact global food security. Increases in food prices can strain food supply chains, leading to concerns about food availability, especially in regions that heavily rely on food imports.
  • Consumer and Producer Effects: Rising food prices can affect both consumers and producers. Consumers may face increased food costs, while producers may benefit from higher prices for their crops and livestock. However, excessive price volatility can disrupt the balance and create challenges for both groups.
  • Long-Term Planning: The index helps identify trends and patterns in food price movements that may lead to food supply issues or food affordability concerns. This information can inform long-term planning efforts aimed at improving food security on a global scale.

The Index faces several challenges that can impact its accuracy and effectiveness


  • External Factors: Global food prices are susceptible to a wide range of external factors, including weather events (such as droughts and floods), geopolitical tensions (such as trade disputes or conflicts in key food-producing regions), and energy prices (which can affect production and transportation costs). These factors can lead to sudden and unpredictable price fluctuations.
  • Market Speculation: Speculative trading in commodity markets can amplify price volatility. Traders who engage in speculative activities may not necessarily be driven by supply and demand fundamentals but rather by profit motives. Their actions can lead to rapid price spikes or crashes, making it challenging to determine the true market value of food commodities.

Data Accuracy

  • Data Collection: Gathering accurate and up-to-date data on food prices from various regions of the world can be a significant challenge. Some countries may lack robust data collection infrastructure, leading to potential gaps or delays in reporting.
  • Quality of Information: Even when data is available, its quality and reliability can vary. Inaccurate or incomplete data can lead to misrepresentations in the index, which may result in incorrect assessments of global food price trends.

Impact of Speculation

  • Market Distortion: Speculative trading can distort food prices and create artificial price movements that do not reflect real supply and demand dynamics. This can have negative consequences for both consumers and producers, as it can lead to price instability and unpredictability.
  • Regulatory Challenges: Regulating speculative activities in commodity markets can be complex, and enforcement may vary from one jurisdiction to another. Addressing the impact of speculation on food prices requires international cooperation and regulatory frameworks that are effective in curbing excessive speculation.

Local Variations

  • Regional and Local Factors: The World Food Price Index focuses on globally traded commodities, but food prices can vary significantly at the local and regional levels. Factors such as transportation costs, local production, and distribution networks can influence food prices differently in various areas.
  • Consumer Impact: While the index provides a broad overview of global trends, it may not capture the specific challenges faced by consumers in particular regions or countries. Local variations in food prices can have a profound impact on the affordability of food for local populations.

Way forward for addressing the challenges associated with the World Food Price Index and for promoting food security on a global scale

Improved Data Collection

  • Data Infrastructure: Investing in data collection infrastructure is crucial, especially in regions where data collection is currently limited or unreliable. This can involve deploying modern technology for data gathering and reporting.
  • Data Sharing: Encouraging countries to share their food price data with international organizations like the FAO can enhance the accuracy and completeness of the index.

Enhanced Market Transparency

  • Regulation: Implementing and enforcing regulations on commodity markets can promote transparency and curb excessive speculation. This may involve setting position limits on futures contracts or enhancing reporting requirements for market participants.
  • Market Surveillance: Enhancing market surveillance mechanisms can help detect and prevent market manipulation, ensuring that food prices are driven by genuine supply and demand factors.

Diversified Food Sources

  • Agricultural Diversification: Governments and farmers should be encouraged to diversify their agricultural production. This can involve supporting the cultivation of a variety of crops and the rearing of different livestock to reduce dependence on a single commodity.
  • Crop Rotation: Promoting sustainable farming practices like crop rotation and intercropping can help improve soil health and resilience to pests and diseases, contributing to stable food production.

Policy Coordination

  • International Cooperation: Global food security challenges require coordinated efforts among nations and international organizations. Collaboration on food aid, trade policies, and crisis response strategies can enhance overall food security.
  • Early Warning Systems: Establishing and strengthening early warning systems for food price crises can facilitate timely interventions and policy responses when price spikes are detected.

Sustainable Agriculture

  • Research and Innovation: Investment in research and innovation in agriculture can lead to the development of sustainable farming practices, improved crop varieties, and technologies that enhance yield and resilience.
  • Climate Resilience: Sustainable agriculture practices should also focus on building resilience to climate change. This may involve drought-resistant crop varieties, water-efficient irrigation systems, and climate-smart farming techniques.


  • The World Food Price Index is a vital tool for monitoring and understanding global food price trends. While it has its challenges, it plays a crucial role in informing policy decisions, promoting food security, and responding to food price crises on a global scale. Efforts to improve data accuracy, market transparency, and sustainable agriculture are essential for the way forward.


Q. What are the key factors contributing to food security challenges in India, and what is the impact of these challenges on the country's population? What strategies and policies can be implemented to address these challenges and ensure a more secure food future for India?