IAS Gyan

Daily News Analysis


15th December, 2023 Geography


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  • In an astonishing first, a tiger was spotted in the Shaukiyathal forest near Jageshwar Dham, Almora, in the Terai region of Uttarakhand.
  • While tigers are occasionally spotted in the Mohan area of Almora, near Corbett Park, this is the first time they have been observed at an elevation of over 6,000 feet at Shaukiyathal, an area surrounded by dense forests of bamboo and rhododendrons near Jageshwar Dham.

About Terai

  • Terai, also known as Tarai, is a lowland belt of flat, alluvial soil that runs along the Nepal-India border and parallel to the lower Himalayan peaks.
  • It runs from the Yamuna River in the west to the Brahmaputra River in the east and is characterized by undulating former wetlands.
  • It is the northern continuation of India's Gangetic Plain, beginning around 300 meters above sea level and rising to around 1,000 meters at the foot of the Siwalik Range.
  • The Terai region of India includes the states of Haryana, Uttarakhand, Uttar Pradesh, Bihar, and West Bengal.
  • It stretches roughly 800 km east to west and 30-40 kilometers north to south.
  • The average elevation is less than 750 meters.
  • Gangetic alluvium, consisting of strata of silt, clay, sand, pebbles, and gravel, formed the Terai flatland.
  • Numerous springs generate multiple streams along its northern side, notably the major Ghaghara River (left-bank tributary of the Ganges River), which intersects the Tarai and contributes to its swampy aspect.
  • Corbett Tiger Reserve, Rajaji National Park, Dudhwa Tiger Reserve, and Valmiki Tiger Reserve are among India's most well-known tiger reserves and protected locations.
  • There are 13 protected areas in all, nine in India and four in Nepal.
  • Interspersed with the Tarai is the Bhabar, a region of coarse gravel and shingle deposits that support sal (Shorea robusta) woods.

More about the news

  • The sighting of a tiger has generated excitement among residents and wildlife experts.
  • Wildlife officials are hailing this as a positive development in wildlife conservation.
  • Uttarakhand currently has over 570 tigers making it the third-largest tiger population in the country. Corbett Park alone has a population of about 270 tigers.
  • In the past few years, the number of tigers in the state has increased significantly.
  • It is believed that due to the high tiger density in the Terai area, the big cats are now turning to the mountains looking for new corridors.
  • The tiger is versatile in nature and can cope with almost every climatic condition, they can also live in places with exceptionally high temperatures such as the Ranthambore region of Rajasthan.
  • The movement of tigers in the mountains is the result of climate change, the availability of food, and an increasing population of the big cats in Terai forests.
  • in the last few years, the number of tigers in the state has increased.


Critically examine the interlinked challenges posed by climate change and habitat loss to the conservation of tigers in India. Suggest effective strategies for mitigating these challenges and ensuring the long-term survival of this iconic species.