IAS Gyan

Daily News Analysis


25th November, 2023 Science and Technology


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  • The recent detection of the "Sun Goddess" particle at Utah's Telescope Array cosmic ray observatory has sparked significant interest within the scientific community.
  • This subatomic particle, named after the revered 'Sun Goddess' in Japanese mythology, possesses an unprecedented energy level that has left scientists perplexed.


Discovery and Characteristics

  • Discovered on May 27, 2021, at the Telescope Array, the "Sun Goddess" particle triggered 23 out of 507 surface detectors.
  • This particle boasts an extraordinary energy level estimated at 244 exa-electron volts, surpassing the famed "Oh My God!" particle discovered over three decades ago, which measured at 320 exa-electron volts.
  • Scientists are intrigued by the unparalleled energy concentration of the Amaterasu particle, far exceeding the capabilities of human-made particle accelerators.

Origin Enigma

  • The "Sun Goddess" particle's origin has presented a profound mystery to researchers.
  • While cosmic rays typically originate from colossal cosmic events like black hole activity or neutron star collapses, this particle appears to originate from an unexpected source—the Local Void, an otherwise empty region bordering the Milky Way galaxy.


  • Despite the unknown origins, scientists believe these particles carry crucial cosmic information, necessitating further investigation.
  • Understanding the source and significance of these high-energy particles could unlock profound insights into cosmic phenomena and the workings of the universe.
  • Ongoing efforts by scientists aim to unravel the mysteries surrounding these particles, emphasizing the need for continuous observation and research for a deeper cosmic understanding.

God Particle (Higgs Boson)

  • The term "God particle" is a nickname given to the Higgs boson, a fundamental particle in the Standard Model of particle physics.
  • It was proposed by theoretical physicist Peter Higgs and others in the 1960s to explain how particles acquire mass.

Key points about the Higgs boson:

  • Theory: The Standard Model describes the fundamental particles and forces in the universe. According to this model, particles gain their mass by interacting with an all-pervading field called the Higgs field. The Higgs boson is the quantum manifestation of this field.
  • Discovery: The Higgs boson remained elusive for decades until experiments at CERN's Large Hadron Collider (LHC) announced its discovery in 2012. Scientists detected a particle with properties consistent with the Higgs boson.
  • Significance: Its discovery confirmed a crucial aspect of the Standard Model and provided insight into the mechanism through which particles acquire mass. It helps explain why certain particles have mass while others, like photons (particles of light), do not.
  • Properties: The Higgs boson is unstable and quickly decays into other particles after its creation in high-energy collisions.

Oh-My-God Particle

  • The "Oh-My-God" particle, also known as the "OMG" particle, is an exceptionally high-energy cosmic ray particle.

Key aspects of the OMG particle:

  • Origin: Detected in 1991 by the Fly's Eye experiment in Utah, this ultra-high-energy cosmic ray was a single proton traveling near the speed of light.
  • Energy: The OMG particle had an incredible energy of approximately 300 exa-electronvolts (EeV), which is millions of times more energetic than particles produced in the largest human-made particle accelerators.
  • Impact: Its energy level was so extreme that it challenged the understanding of cosmic ray physics, as it seemed to violate the predicted limits for the energy of cosmic rays originating from within our galaxy.
  • Nature: The origin of such high-energy cosmic rays remains a topic of ongoing research. It's hypothesized that these particles might originate from distant astrophysical phenomena, such as supernovae, active galactic nuclei, or other exotic cosmic events.


Q. Which experiment detected the 'Oh-My-God' particle in 1991?

a) ATLAS Experiment

b) LIGO Experiment

c) Pierre Auger Observatory

d) Fly's Eye Experiment

Answer: d)