IAS Gyan

Daily News Analysis


23rd July, 2022 International Relations

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Context:   Russia and Ukraine signed separate agreements with Turkey and the U.N., clearing the way for exporting millions of tons of desperately needed Ukrainian grain — as well as Russian grain and fertilizer — ending a wartime standoff that had threatened food security around the globe.


Why was the grain export deal signed?

  • Ukraine is one of the world’s largest exporters of wheat, corn and sunflower oil, but Russia’s invasion of the country and naval blockade of its ports have halted shipments.
  • Some grain is being transported through Europe by rail, road and river, but the prices of vital commodities like wheat and barley have soared during the nearly five-month war.
  • Ukrainian and Russian military delegations reached a tentative agreement on a U.N. plan that would also allow Russia to export its grain and fertilizers.

What is the grain export deal?

  • The deal makes provisions for the safe passage of ships.
  • It foresees the establishment of a control center in Istanbul, to be staffed by U.N., Turkish, Russian and Ukrainian officials, to run and coordinate the process.
  • Ships would undergo inspections to ensure they are not carrying weapons.
  • No Russian ship would escort vessels and that there would be no Russian representative present at Ukrainian ports.
  • Ukraine was expected to export 22 million tons of grain and other agricultural products that have been stuck in Black Sea ports due to the war.