IAS Gyan

Daily News Analysis


9th October, 2023 Science and Technology

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  • The Food Safety and Standards Authority of India (FSSAI) clarified that addition of protein binders in milk and milk products are not permitted.
  • Additives that have not been specified in the Food Safety and Standards (Food Products Standards and Food Additives) Regulation, 2011, cannot be added.


  • Texture Enhancement: Protein binders are used to modify the texture and consistency of food products. In dairy products like curd (yogurt), they can be added to create a thicker or creamier texture, enhancing the overall eating experience.
  • Diverse Food Applications: Protein binders are versatile and find applications in various types of foods, particularly in semi-solid or solid products where texture plays a crucial role in consumer acceptance. This includes not only dairy but also items like sauces, dressings, and baked goods.
  • Digestibility and Nutritional Impact: The addition of protein binders can affect the digestibility of the proteins present in the food product. This can have implications for the bioavailability of essential nutrients and the overall nutritive value of the food.
  • Bioavailability of Active Compounds: Beyond texture and nutrition, protein binders can also influence the bioavailability of bioactive compounds, such as vitamins, minerals, and phytochemicals, that may be present in the food. Binding interactions can affect how these compounds are absorbed and utilized by the body.
  • Ingredient Selection: The choice of protein binders is critical, as different proteins can have varying effects on texture, digestibility, and bioavailability. The selection depends on the desired characteristics of the final product.

About Protein Binders

  • Protein binders, also known as binding proteins or simply binders, play a critical role in various biological processes.
  • They are essential components of living organisms, and their ability to interact specifically with other molecules is fundamental to many aspects of life.

Nature of Protein Binders:

  • Protein Structure: Binders are typically proteins, which are complex biomolecules composed of amino acid chains folded into specific three-dimensional structures.
  • Specificity: Protein binders exhibit high specificity, meaning they can selectively recognize and interact with particular molecules, known as ligands.
  • Binding Sites: Binders have specific regions or pockets, called binding sites or active sites, where ligand interactions occur.
  • Binding Affinity: The strength of the interaction between a binder and its ligand is characterized by binding affinity, often measured by dissociation constants (Kd).

Functions of Protein Binders:

Protein binders have diverse functions within biological systems:

  • Transport: Some proteins, like hemoglobin, bind to and transport molecules such as oxygen, ensuring their efficient distribution throughout the body.
  • Signaling: Cell surface receptors, like those for neurotransmitters or hormones, bind to ligands to initiate cellular signaling pathways.
  • Immune Response: Antibodies are protein binders produced by the immune system to recognize and neutralize foreign substances (antigens).
  • Enzyme Regulation: Proteins can act as binders to regulate enzyme activity by either activating or inhibiting enzymatic reactions.
  • Gene Expression: Transcription factors bind to DNA sequences to control gene expression, influencing protein synthesis.
  • Structural Support: Proteins like collagen bind together to provide structural support to tissues and organs.

Types of Protein Binders:

Protein binders can be categorized based on their functions:

  • Enzymes: Binders that catalyze biochemical reactions by binding to substrates and facilitating their conversion into products.
  • Antibodies: Binders produced by the immune system to recognize and neutralize foreign antigens.
  • Receptors: Cell surface proteins that bind to specific ligands, transmitting signals and initiating cellular responses.
  • Transport Proteins: Binders that transport molecules (e.g., hemoglobin for oxygen, albumin for various substances) within the body.
  • Binding Proteins: These proteins bind to small molecules, such as hormones or vitamins, to transport them through the bloodstream.
  • Transcription Factors: Proteins that bind to DNA and regulate gene expression by initiating or inhibiting transcription.
  • Chaperones: Binders that assist in protein folding, preventing misfolding and promoting proper assembly.
  • RNA-Binding Proteins: Proteins that interact with RNA molecules, influencing RNA processing, transport, and translation.

Applications of Protein Binders:

Protein binders have a wide range of applications in various fields:

  • Biotechnology: Protein binders are used in techniques like Western blotting, ELISA, and protein purification.
  • Pharmaceuticals: Monoclonal antibodies, a type of protein binder, are used in therapies for cancer, autoimmune diseases, and infectious diseases.
  • Diagnostics: Protein binders are critical components of diagnostic assays, helping detect specific molecules in clinical samples.
  • Biological Research: They are essential tools for studying protein-protein interactions, signal transduction pathways, and gene regulation.
  • Drug Development: Protein binders are targeted in drug discovery to design molecules that modulate specific binding interactions.
  • Agriculture: They play a role in developing genetically modified crops and improving crop resistance to pests or environmental conditions.


Protein binders are essential biomolecules with diverse functions in biology. Their specific binding capabilities have wide-ranging applications in research, diagnostics, therapeutics, and industry, making them indispensable tools in understanding and manipulating biological systems.


Q.   Evaluate the benefits and potential concerns associated with the use of protein binders in food manufacturing. How can regulatory frameworks ensure the safe and transparent use of these ingredients in the food supply chain? (250 Words)