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Context: Kenneth Smith, convicted for a 1988 murder, was executed in Alabama (USA) using nitrogen hypoxia, a new method involving inhaling pure nitrogen to induce lethal levels of nitrogen in the body, causing death.
- Nitrogen hypoxia is a form of asphyxiation where a person is deprived of oxygen by inhaling pure nitrogen. Oxygen deprivation occurs as the concentration of nitrogen in the body increases, squeezing out oxygen from the respiratory system.
- The individual is fitted with a respirator mask connected to a canister of pressurized nitrogen. As nitrogen is inhaled, oxygen levels decrease, leading to low blood flow and ultimately, death.
- While nitrogen is safe at normal atmospheric levels (about 78% nitrogen), concentrations above 80% can be lethal. Nitrogen is odourless, colourless, tasteless, and inert, making it difficult to detect dangerous levels without special gas detectors.
- Oxygen levels below 10% can lead to convulsions, loss of consciousness, and death. Even at higher levels, such as 12.5% or 14%, individuals may experience severe breathing difficulties and other physiological effects.
- The adoption of nitrogen hypoxia as an execution method has sparked debate among legal experts, medical professionals, and ethicists. Some argue that it provides a more humane alternative to traditional methods, while others question its ethical implications and potential for causing suffering.
Nitrogen hypoxia, despite the controversy surrounding its use in executions, has legitimate applications in certain industrial settings. For example, nitrogen is used in food packaging to displace oxygen and prevent spoilage. However, strict safety protocols and proper training are crucial to prevent accidental asphyxiation during such industrial processes.
Q. No justice system is foolproof, and the risk of wrongful convictions remains a critical concern, especially in capital cases where a mistake can be irreversible. How can India strengthen its judicial and legal processes to minimize the risk of errors and ensure that capital punishment is only applied in cases where guilt is established beyond a reasonable doubt?