IAS Gyan

Daily News Analysis


22nd April, 2024 International Relations


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What is Nagorno-Karabakh conflict?

  • The Nagorno-Karabakh conflict is a long-standing territorial dispute primarily between Armenia and Azerbaijan over the Nagorno-Karabakh region, which is internationally recognized as part of Azerbaijan but populated predominantly by ethnic Armenians. The conflict has deep historical, ethnic, and geopolitical roots. Here are some key causes:

Causes of the conflict:

  • Historical Context: The Nagorno-Karabakh region has a long history of ethnic and territorial disputes between Armenians and Azerbaijanis dating back to the early 20th century. During the Soviet era, Nagorno-Karabakh was an autonomous region within the Azerbaijan Soviet Socialist Republic, despite its Armenian majority population.
  • Ethnic Conflict: The region is ethnically Armenian but located within the borders of Azerbaijan. As a result, both Armenians and Azerbaijanis have laid claim to the territory, leading to tensions and periodic outbreaks of violence.

Nagorno-Karabakh 1

  • Nationalism and Self-Determination: Armenian nationalists argue that Nagorno-Karabakh's Armenian population has the right to self-determination and independence or union with Armenia, citing historical and cultural ties. Azerbaijani nationalists, on the other hand, assert Azerbaijan's territorial integrity and sovereignty over Nagorno-Karabakh.
  • Collapse of the Soviet Union: The dissolution of the Soviet Union in 1991 led to the escalation of the conflict. As Soviet control weakened, both Armenia and Azerbaijan sought to assert their claims over Nagorno-Karabakh, leading to armed conflict and eventually a full-scale war from 1992 to 1994.
  • Displacement and Refugees: The conflict has resulted in significant displacement of populations, with hundreds of thousands of Azerbaijanis and Armenians being forced to flee their homes as a result of the violence.
  • External Involvement: External actors, including Russia, Turkey, and Iran, have historically played roles in the conflict due to their strategic interests in the region. Russia has close ties with Armenia, while Turkey has supported Azerbaijan.
  • Failure of Diplomatic Efforts: Despite numerous attempts at mediation and peace negotiations by international organizations such as the OSCE Minsk Group, which was established in 1992 to facilitate a peaceful resolution to the conflict, a lasting solution has remained elusive.


  • Azerbaijan is a country in Asia that is bordered by Russia, Georgia, Armenia, and Iran.
    • The Caspian Sea borders the east of the country.
    • Much of the north and west is covered by the Caucasus Mountains.
  • Capital city: Baku.
  • Yanar Da is a famous site in Azerbaijan and it has a natural eternal fire fueled by seeping natural gases, burning for over 65 years along the Caspian Sea. This unique phenomenon gives Azerbaijan its nickname, "The Land of Fire."


  • It is a landlocked country in the Caucasus with Turkey to the west, Georgia to the north, and Azerbaijan to the east.
  • Capital: Yerevan.
  • Highest Peak: Mount Ararat.

You may also refer to the article: https://www.iasgyan.in/daily-current-affairs/nagorno-karabakh-conflict-45




Q) Consider the following pairs:


Regions often mentioned in news

Reason for being in news



Name of Arunachal Pradesh in Chinese map.



Disputed region between Armenia and Azerbaijan



Kherson and Zaporizhzhia

Dispute between Israel and Lebanon

How many of the above pairs is/are correctly matched?

(a) Only one
(b) Only two
(c) All three
(d) None

Answer: B


Pair 1 is correctly matched:

The Chinese Ministry of Civil Affairs released the fourth list of standardized geographical names in Zangnan, the Chinese name for Arunachal Pradesh, which Beijing claims as part of south Tibet.

The first batch of the standardised names of six places in Arunachal Pradesh was released in 2017 while the second batch of 15 places was issued in 2021.

In April last year, Beijing released the third list of standardized names of 11 places in Arunachal Pradesh.

Pair 2 is correctly matched:

Nagorno-Karabakh is a region of southwestern Azerbaijan. It is used to refer to an autonomous oblast (province) of the former Azerbaijan Soviet Socialist Republic (S.S.R.) and to the Republic of Nagorno-Karabakh, a self-declared country whose independence is not internationally recognized. The old autonomous region occupied an area of about 1,700 square miles (4,400 square km), while the forces of the self-proclaimed Republic of Nagorno-Karabakh presently occupy some 2,700 square miles (7,000 square km).

Pair 3 is not correctly matched:

Kherson and Zaporizhzhia are related to Ukraine and they are related to the dispute between Ukraine and Russia.