Daily News Analysis

Modernisation of Police:

22nd July, 2021 Polity

Context:

  • Recently, government has explained on the modernization of the police force in the parliament.

About Modernisation of Police

  • Modernization of police forces is a continuous and ongoing process.
  • ‘Police’ and ‘Public Order’ are State subjects under the seventh Schedule to the Constitution of India. 
  • However, the Government of India supplements the efforts of the State Governments towards equipping and modernizing of their police forces, under the centrally sponsored scheme of ‘Assistance to States for Modernisation of Police’
  • Under    this scheme,   State Governments are provided central assistance for modernisation of State police forces.

Implementation of Scheme:

  • Under this scheme, the States have been provided central assistance for acquisition of advanced weaponry such as INSAS Rifles & AK series rifles; all types of intelligence equipment including Unmanned Aerial Vehicles (UAVs), Night Vision Devices (NVDs), CCTV Surveillance system & body worn camera systems; modern communication equipment and state-of-the-art equipment for  security / training / forensics / cybercrime / traffic policing.
  • Further, ‘construction’ and ‘purchase of operational vehicles’ are permitted in the insurgency affected north-eastern States and Left Wing Extremism (LWE) affected districts. The State Governments are free to include proposals in accordance with their strategic priorities and requirements.
  • For the States which utilize their funds timely, the scheme has unique mechanism to provide more funds based on their efficiency in timely utilization of funds, in the form of ‘better performance incentives’.

Success of the Scheme:

  • Significant technical developments have taken place in the State Police Forces though they are at different levels of modernization as per their requirements and resources.
  • The major technological developments reported are that of Police forces shifting from analog to digital technology in communication, upgradation of forensic lab equipments and more lethal weaponry. Body worn cameras and UAVs/drones are being increasingly used by the Police Forces.
  • In the field of investigation, various new technologies are being adopted such as Automatic Finger Print Identification System (AFIS), 3D Crime Scene Scanner etc.

Challenges

  • However, at present, most of the State Governments have substantial unspent balances out of funds released during earlier years.
  • There are capacity constraints at the end of some State Police Directorates in utilizing funds. which are released out of pooled amount of the funds unreleased due to non-furnishing of Utilization Certificates by other States .

Census 2021:

  • Due to outbreak of Covid-19, the Census activities have been postponed.

Census drive:

  • It will have two phases:
    • ‘Population enumeration’ phase
    • House Listing and Housing Census
  • ‘Population enumeration’ phase:
    • It will be carried out from February 9 to 28, 2021.
    • It will have the facility of online self-enumeration for the public.
    • Respondent could register online and fill in the details and share the reference number with the enumerators when they arrive.
    • It will not be available in the first phase.
  • House Listing and Housing Census
    • It is to be carried out from April 1 to September 30 this year.
    • The National Population Register (NPR) will also be updated simultaneously in the first phase.
    • The information asked would be whether the respondent has access to LPG/PNG connection.
    • If the person owns a radio, transistor or television has access to the Internet; whether they own a laptop, computer, telephone, mobile phone, among other things.
  • 2021 would be the first-ever Census to be conducted with a mixed mode approach
    • A mobile app (created in-house by the RGI office)
    • Will have the facility for online self-enumeration for the public during the population enumeration phase.

About Census:

  • The Indian census is the largest administrative and statistical exercise in the world, with more than 30 lakh functionaries and at the cost of about 8700 crore rupees.
  • Confidentiality of data is guaranteed by Census Act, 1948.
  • Same law specifies penalty for BOTH public AND census officials for non-compliance or violation of any provision of the Act.
  • The decennial Census of India has been conducted 15 times as of 2011.
  • It has been undertaken every 10 years, beginning in 1872 under British Viceroy Lord Mayo, the first complete census was taken in 1881.