IAS Gyan

Daily News Analysis


7th December, 2023 Science and Technology


Disclaimer: Copyright infringement not intended.


The Indian Space Research Organisation (ISRO) has executed a unique operation, relocating the Propulsion Module (PM) of Chandrayaan-3 from a lunar orbit to an orbit around Earth, for an extended run after it completed its original mission objectives.


  • Unlike Chandrayaan-2, this mission had a limited scientific payload called SHAPE and intended to operate for about six months.
  • Despite the original plan for the module to orbit the Moon for its mission life, ISRO brought it back to Earth's orbit.
  • This unexpected experiment was possible due to significant propellant savings during the mission.
  • ISRO meticulously planned the return trajectory to bring the propulsion module back to Earth.
  • Key maneuvers included raising the lunar orbit's altitude, trans-Earth injection maneuver, moon fly-bys, and exiting the Moon's sphere of influence on November 10.
  • ISRO gained valuable data for developing software modules, flight dynamics analysis, and preventing uncontrolled crashes or space debris.

Significance for Future Missions

  • Chandrayaan-3's propulsion module retrieval and other experiments are crucial for ISRO's ambitions, including the Lunar Sample Return Mission (LSRM) and other lunar endeavors.
  • These experiments demonstrate ISRO's capabilities and technical advancements in space missions.
  • ISRO's work on re-entry technology for space capsules suggests its diverse missions beyond lunar exploration.

Objective of Lunar Sample Return Mission (LSRM)

  • The primary goal of the Lunar Sample Return Mission is to collect pristine samples of lunar soil from specific locations on the Moon's surface.
  • These samples are expected to provide critical insights into the Moon's geological composition, history, and potentially its past interactions with the Earth.

Mission Components and Execution

  • The mission typically involves a spacecraft consisting of an orbiter, a lander, and a sample collection device.
  • The orbiter is responsible for navigation, communication, and sometimes observations while the lander carries instruments necessary for the collection and storage of lunar samples.
  • The sample collection device may utilize robotic arms, drills, or scoops to gather soil or rock samples from the lunar surface.

Challenges and Technical Considerations

  • Precise landing and sample retrieval are critical and require advanced robotics, navigation, and autonomous systems to ensure successful collection.
  • The return journey from the Moon to Earth involves various maneuvers, including lunar liftoff, rendezvous with the orbiter, and re-entry into Earth's atmosphere.

Previous Lunar Sample Return Missions

  • Historically, only a few missions have successfully brought back lunar samples, notably the Apollo missions conducted by NASA in the late 1960s and early 1970s.
  • These missions collected and transported nearly 382 kilograms (842 pounds) of lunar material back to Earth, which has been instrumental in numerous scientific discoveries.

Global Collaboration and Future Prospects

  • Several space agencies, including NASA, ESA, CNSA (China National Space Administration), and others, are planning or considering lunar sample return missions.
  • Collaborative efforts among different space agencies could lead to enhanced scientific knowledge and advancements in lunar exploration.

Scientific Analysis and Expected Outcomes

  • Upon returning to Earth, the lunar samples undergo rigorous scientific analysis by researchers worldwide using specialized laboratories.
  • The analysis includes studies on mineral composition, isotopic dating, volatiles, geological processes, and the potential for identifying traces of water or organic compounds.


  • ISRO's successful retrieval of the propulsion module from Chandrayaan-3's mission orbiting the Moon back to Earth's orbit marks a significant step in India's space exploration.
  • The unexpected experiment has provided crucial insights and capabilities for future lunar missions, including the Lunar Sample Return Mission, showcasing ISRO's technical prowess and advancements in space science.


Q. Explain the significance and scientific implications of a Lunar Sample Return Mission (LSRM) in advancing lunar exploration and our understanding of the Moon's geological composition.  (250 Words)