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  • India will start participating in the International Civil Aviation Organisation's (ICAO) Carbon Offsetting and Reduction Scheme for International Aviation (CORSIA) and the Long-Term Aspirational Goals (LTAG) from 2027.


  • The ICAO has been tasked to reduce carbon emissions from international civil aviation as one of its focus areas.
  • In order to mitigate carbon emissions from aviation and its impact on climate change, the global body has adopted several key aspirational goals.
    • Among them are a two per cent annual fuel efficiency improvement through 2050, carbon neutral growth and net zero by 2050. The ICAO has clubbed them under CORSIA and LTAG.
    • The former is to be implemented in three phases.
    • Financial implications due to offsetting have to be borne by individual airlines, depending upon their international operations.
    • CORSIA is applicable only to flights originating from one country to another.
  • India committed to net zero by 2070 at the 26th Conference of Parties (COP26) to the United Nations Framework Convention on Climate Change.

What is CORSIA?

  • CORSIA is the first global market-based measure for any sector and represents a cooperative approach that moves away from a “patchwork” of national or regional regulatory initiatives.
  • It offers a harmonized way to reduce emissions from international aviation, minimizing market distortion, while respecting the special circumstances and respective capabilities of ICAO Member States.
  • CORSIA complements the other elements of the basket of measures by offsetting the amount of CO2 emissions that cannot be reduced through the use of technological improvements, operational improvements, and sustainable aviation fuels with emissions units from the carbon market.


  • CORSIA is implemented in three phases: a pilot phase (2021-2023), a first phase (2024-2026), and a second phase (2027-2035).
  • For the first two phases (2021-2026), participation is voluntary.
  • From 2027 onwards, participation will be determined based on 2018 RTK data.

About ICAO

  • ‚Äč‚Äč The International Civil Aviation Organization is a specialized agency of the United Nations.
  • ICAO headquarters are located in the Quartier International of Montreal, Quebec, Canada.
  • It was formed in 1947.
  • ICAO is funded and directed by 193 national governments to support their diplomacy and cooperation in air transport as signatory states to the Chicago Convention (1944).

Core functions

  • Its core function is to maintain an administrative and expert Secretariat of international civil servants and to research new air transport policy and standardization innovations.
  • ICAO also serves as a critical coordination platform in civil aviation through its seven Regional Offices.
  • It also conducts educational outreach, develops coalitions, and conducts auditing, training, and capacity building activities worldwide per the needs and priorities governments identify and formalize.
  • The stipulations ICAO standards contain never supersede the primacy of national regulatory requirements. It is always the local, national regulations which are enforced in, and by, sovereign states, and which must be legally adhered to by air operators making use of applicable airspace and airports.
  • ICAO is therefore not an international aviation regulator, just as INTERPOL is not an international police force.


  • Achieve the sustainable growth of the global civil aviation system.


  • To serve as the global forum of States for international civil aviation.
  • ICAO develops policies and Standards, undertakes compliance audits, performs studies and analyses, provides assistance and builds aviation capacity through many other activities and the cooperation of its Member States and stakeholders.

Strategic Objectives


  • Enhance global civil aviation safety.
  • This Strategic Objective is focused primarily on the State's regulatory oversight capabilities.

Air Navigation Capacity and Efficiency

  • Although functionally and organizationally interdependent with Safety, this Strategic Objective is focused primarily on upgrading the air navigation and aerodrome infrastructure and developing new procedures to optimize aviation system performance.

Security & Facilitation

  • This Strategic Objective reflects the need for ICAO's leadership in aviation security, facilitation and related border security matters.

Economic Development of Air Transport

  • This Strategic Objective reflects the need for ICAO's leadership in harmonizing the air transport framework focused on economic policies and supporting activities.

Environmental Protection

  • This Strategic Objective fosters ICAO's leadership in all aviation-related environmental activities and is consistent with the ICAO and UN system environmental protection policies and practices.

International Civil Aviation Day – 7 December

  • ‚Äč‚ÄčInternational Civil Aviation Day was established in 1994 as part of ICAO’s 50th anniversary activities.
  • In 1996, United Nations General Assembly officially recognized 7 December as International Civil Aviation Day in the UN system.
  • The purpose of International Civil Aviation Day is to help generate and reinforce worldwide awareness of the importance of international civil aviation to the social and economic development of States, and of the unique role of ICAO in helping States to cooperate and realize a truly global rapid transit network at the service of all mankind.

International Civil Aviation Day Theme

  • Every five years, coinciding with ICAO anniversaries, the ICAO Council establishes a special anniversary theme for International Civil Aviation Day.
  • Between these anniversary years, Council representatives select a single theme for the full four-year intervening period.
  • Until 2023, the Council has decided that the theme will be: “Advancing Innovation for Global Aviation Development”.


Q) Which of the following statements with reference to International Civil Aviation Organisation is/are correct?

a. ICAO is an international aviation regulator.

b. It is a specialized agency of the United Nations.

c. International Civil Aviation Day  is celebrated every year on 7 December.

  1. 1 and 2
  2. 2 and 3
  3. 1 and 3
  4. 1, 2 and 3

Correct Answer: 2