IAS Gyan

Daily News Analysis


22nd September, 2023 Economy

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Picture Courtesy: India Today

Context: The release of quarterly GDP figures by the National Statistical Office (NSO) is often likened to reviewing a report card of the country's economic performance. It's essential to recognize that India's economic figures tell a more nuanced and complex story than a simple report card.

Key Highlights

  • Income Approach v/s Expenditure Approach: The choice of using the income approach for calculating GDP, rather than the expenditure approach, significantly affects the reported growth rate. The income approach yields a higher GDP growth rate of 7.8% compared to 4.5% when using the expenditure approach. This underscores the complexity and subjectivity inherent in GDP calculations.
  • Base Effect from COVID-19: The presence of a base effect stemming from the COVID-19 pandemic, which can distort year-on-year growth comparisons. While this effect is less pronounced in FY24, it continues to impact India's growth figures, necessitating consideration of historical context.
  • Inflation and Exchange Rates: The potential impact of inflation, exchange rates, and capital outflows on India's economic growth is thoroughly examined. The challenges posed by rising crude oil prices and rupee depreciation have given India's status as a net importer heavily reliant on imported crude oil.
  • Tax Revenue Patterns: Divergent patterns in direct and indirect tax revenue. Despite strong economic performance in the services industry, direct tax revenue appears weaker. This raises questions about the effectiveness of progressive taxation and suggests the possibility of fiscal constraints.
  • Government Expenditure: The anticipated growth in FY24, expected to be driven by government expenditure, may encounter challenges due to the narrowing of revenue streams. Additionally, the government's intent to control the budget deficit is noted as a potential factor affecting growth.

India's Growth Trajectory

  • India's economic growth trajectory is a compelling narrative shaped by its unique historical, political, and social context. Understanding the background is crucial to grasp the complexities of India's economic journey.

Features of India's Growth Trajectory

Mixed Economy

  • After gaining independence in 1947, India adopted a mixed economy model that aimed to strike a balance between public ownership and private enterprise.
  • The public sector was dominant in areas considered strategic, such as defence, railways, and infrastructure, while the private sector operated in various other industries.
  • The idea was to ensure economic growth while also addressing social and welfare concerns through state intervention.

License Raj

  • The period of License Raj, which lasted from the 1950s to the early 1990s, was characterized by extensive government regulations and controls on economic activities.
  • To start or expand a business, entrepreneurs needed to obtain licenses and approvals from multiple government agencies, leading to bureaucratic hurdles and corruption.
  • This stifled entrepreneurship, discouraged foreign investment, and resulted in slow economic growth and inefficiencies.

Economic Liberalization

  • In 1991, India embarked on a significant economic reform process known as economic liberalization. This reform program often referred to as the "1991 reforms," aimed to liberalize the Indian economy by dismantling many of the regulations that had hindered economic growth.
  • Key measures included reducing trade barriers, opening up to foreign investment, and privatizing state-owned enterprises. These reforms led to increased foreign direct investment (FDI), improved competitiveness, and higher economic growth rates.

Services Sector

  • India's services sector has played a pivotal role in its economic growth, particularly in the 21st century.
  • The IT (Information Technology) and IT-enabled services industry, along with business process outsourcing (BPO), have been major contributors to India's GDP.
  • The country's skilled workforce, proficiency in English, and cost-effective labour have attracted global companies to outsource their business processes and software development to India.
  • This sector has not only driven economic growth but also generated employment opportunities for millions of Indians.

Demographic Dividend

  • India's demographic dividend refers to its large and youthful population, with a significant portion of the population being of working age. This demographic advantage can be a powerful engine for economic growth and development, as a large workforce can boost productivity and innovation.
    • However, realizing the demographic dividend also requires investments in education, skill development, and job creation to ensure that the workforce is gainfully employed and productive.
  • If managed effectively, this demographic dividend can provide India with a competitive edge in the global economy.

Overall, India's growth trajectory has been marked by a transition from a heavily regulated economy to a more liberalized and market-oriented one. The services sector, demographic dividend, and economic reforms have played pivotal roles in driving India's economic growth and transforming it into one of the world's fastest-growing major economies. However, challenges such as income inequality, infrastructure development, and inclusive growth remain to be addressed to sustain and further accelerate this growth trajectory.

Significance of India's growth trajectory

Poverty Reduction

  • India's economic growth has played a crucial role in reducing poverty rates and improving living standards for a significant portion of its population.
  • Inclusive Growth: India's economic growth has not only been robust but also relatively inclusive. The government has implemented various poverty alleviation programs and social safety nets to ensure that the benefits of growth are distributed more equitably.
  • Improvement in Human Development Indicators: Higher GDP growth has led to improvements in various human development indicators, such as increased access to education, healthcare, and sanitation. These improvements are essential for breaking the cycle of poverty.
  • Rural-Urban Migration: Economic growth has spurred rural-urban migration, allowing people to seek better-paying job opportunities in cities. This migration has contributed to poverty reduction in rural areas, as remittances from urban workers often flow back to their home regions.

Global Economic Player

  • India's emergence as one of the world's fastest-growing major economies carries significant global and regional implications.
  • Global Economic Influence: As India's economy expands, it gains greater influence in international economic forums like the G20 and BRICS. This influence allows India to participate actively in global economic policymaking and trade negotiations, shaping rules that affect its economic interests.
  • Trade and Investment: India's growth attracts foreign investment and opens up opportunities for Indian businesses to expand globally. It also enhances India's ability to negotiate favourable trade agreements, potentially increasing access to foreign markets.
  • Diversification: A larger and more diversified economy is less susceptible to global economic shocks. This diversification can help India withstand external economic pressures and contribute to regional stability.

Technological Advancements

  • India's IT sector has gained international recognition and has significant implications for the country's growth.
  • Innovation Hub: India's IT industry has evolved from being a service provider to an innovation hub. It fosters technological innovation and entrepreneurship, leading to the development of startups and new technologies that contribute to economic growth.
  • Employment Generation: The IT sector is a major employer, creating high-paying jobs for skilled workers. This not only contributes to reducing unemployment but also boosts disposable incomes, which can further stimulate economic growth.
  • Exports: India's IT services exports contribute substantially to its foreign exchange reserves, enhancing its economic stability and capacity to invest in infrastructure and development projects.

Infrastructure Development

  • Investment in infrastructure development has been critical for India's growth.
  • Connectivity and Trade: Improved infrastructure, including roads, ports, and airports, has enhanced connectivity within the country and facilitated trade. This, in turn, boosts economic development by reducing transportation costs and improving supply chain efficiency.
  • Urbanization: Infrastructure development often accompanies urbanization. India's growing urban areas are hubs of economic activity and innovation, attracting businesses and fostering economic growth.
  • Investor Confidence: Adequate infrastructure is essential to attract domestic and foreign investment. Investors are more likely to commit capital to regions with reliable infrastructure, which can help stimulate economic growth in those areas.

Significance of India's growth trajectory

Poverty Reduction

  • India's economic growth has made a significant impact on poverty reduction, leading to improved living standards for a substantial portion of its population.
  • Inclusive Growth: Economic growth in India has been relatively inclusive, meaning that it has benefited a wide range of income groups. Policies and programs like the Mahatma Gandhi National Rural Employment Guarantee Act (MGNREGA) have helped provide jobs and income support to those in need, contributing to poverty reduction.
  • Human Development: Higher economic growth has enabled increased government spending on education, healthcare, and sanitation. Improved access to these services has enhanced human development indicators, including literacy rates, life expectancy, and infant mortality rates.
  • Rural-Urban Migration: Economic growth has led to rural-urban migration, as people seek better opportunities in cities. This migration can help reduce poverty in rural areas, as remittances from urban workers often flow back to their hometowns, supporting local economies.

Global Economic Player

  • India's emergence as a major global economy has several significant implications.
  • Global Influence: India's economic growth has boosted its influence in international economic forums, such as the G20 and BRICS. It gives India a platform to participate in global economic policymaking, advocate for its interests, and contribute to shaping international trade agreements.
  • Trade and Investment: India's economic growth attracts foreign investment and expands opportunities for Indian businesses in global markets. It also enhances India's bargaining power in trade negotiations, potentially opening up new export markets.
  • Regional Stability: A strong and growing Indian economy contributes to regional stability in South Asia. It can help promote economic integration and cooperation in the region, reducing tensions and fostering peace.

Technological Advancements

  • India's IT sector has played a pivotal role in its growth and development.
  • Innovation Hub: India's IT industry has evolved beyond just providing services; it has become an innovation hub. This sector fosters technological innovation and entrepreneurship, leading to the development of startups and cutting-edge technologies.
  • Employment Generation: The IT sector is a significant employer, creating high-paying jobs for skilled workers. This not only reduces unemployment but also boosts disposable incomes, which can further stimulate economic growth.
  • Exports and Foreign Exchange: India's IT services exports contribute significantly to its foreign exchange reserves. This adds to India's economic stability and its capacity to invest in infrastructure and development projects.

Infrastructure Development

  • Infrastructure development is crucial for facilitating economic growth and development.
  • Connectivity and Trade: Investments in infrastructure have improved connectivity within India and with the rest of the world. Modern transportation networks, ports, and airports reduce transportation costs and improve supply chain efficiency, making trade and economic development more efficient.
  • Urbanization: Infrastructure development often accompanies urbanization. India's growing urban areas serve as hubs of economic activity and innovation, attracting businesses and fostering economic growth.
  • Investor Confidence: Adequate infrastructure is essential to attract domestic and foreign investment. Investors are more likely to commit capital to regions with reliable infrastructure, which, in turn, can stimulate economic growth in those areas.

Key Steps Taken by India

Economic Reforms

  • In 1991, India initiated a major economic reform program in response to a severe balance of payments crisis.
  • Liberalization: Reduction of trade barriers and liberalization of the foreign exchange market to attract foreign investments.
  • Privatization: Disinvestment of government-owned enterprises and encouraging private sector participation in various sectors of the economy.
  • Deregulation: Reducing government control and regulations in industries like telecommunications, aviation, and finance.
  • Financial Sector Reforms: Modernization of the banking sector, allowing private banks to enter the industry, and the establishment of regulatory bodies like SEBI (Securities and Exchange Board of India) to oversee financial markets.

Goods and Services Tax (GST)

  • The GST, introduced on July 1, 2017, replaced a complex system of multiple indirect taxes across states and unified them into a single tax system.
  • The GST has multiple tax slabs, including 5%, 12%, 18%, and 28%, with some essential items exempted.
  • It aimed to eliminate the cascading effect of taxes, simplify tax compliance for businesses, and create a common market across India.

Digital India

  • The Digital India initiative was launched in 2015 with the vision to transform India into a digitally empowered society and knowledge economy. Key components include:
    • Expanding broadband connectivity in rural areas.
    • Promoting e-governance to provide government services online.
    • Encouraging the use of digital payments and digital literacy.
    • Building digital infrastructure and data centres.
    • Fostering innovation and entrepreneurship in the IT and tech sector.

Make in India

  • Launched in 2014, the Make in India campaign aims to encourage domestic manufacturing and reduce dependency on imports.
  • It focuses on various sectors, including manufacturing, electronics, automobiles, defence, and more.
  • The campaign seeks to improve the ease of doing business, reduce bureaucratic hurdles, and provide incentives for businesses to set up manufacturing units in India.
  • Initiatives like "Invest India" and "Startup India" are also part of this broader effort to promote entrepreneurship and investment.

These steps collectively represent India's efforts to modernize its economy, promote entrepreneurship, and improve the ease of doing business. They reflect a commitment to economic growth and self-reliance, as well as a transition toward a more digital and technologically advanced society.

Key Challenges that India faces

Income Inequality

  • Income inequality in India is a persistent issue, with substantial disparities among different income groups, regions, and communities.
  • Urban areas tend to have higher income levels compared to rural areas, leading to a rural-urban income divide.
  • Income inequality is also evident across states, with some regions experiencing higher economic growth rates than others.
  • Addressing income inequality is crucial for social cohesion and equitable economic development.

Job Creation

  • India's demographic dividend, with a large and youthful population, presents both an opportunity and a challenge.
  • The challenge lies in creating enough job opportunities to absorb the growing workforce. Insufficient job creation can lead to unemployment and underemployment.
  • The government has launched various initiatives such as "Make in India" and "Skill India" to promote job creation, skill development, and entrepreneurship.

Infrastructure Gaps

  • While India has made significant strides in infrastructure development, there are still gaps in transportation, energy, healthcare, and education infrastructure.
  • Inadequate infrastructure can hinder economic growth, increase costs for businesses, and limit access to essential services for the population.
  • Efforts are underway to improve infrastructure through projects like "Smart Cities" and the development of industrial corridors.

Environmental Sustainability

  • Rapid industrialization and urbanization have led to environmental challenges such as air and water pollution, deforestation, and depletion of natural resources.
  • Climate change poses a significant threat, with extreme weather events affecting agriculture and vulnerable communities.
  • India has taken steps to balance economic development with environmental sustainability, including promoting renewable energy and implementing pollution control measures.

To address these challenges, the Indian government and various stakeholders are working on policies and initiatives aimed at reducing income inequality, fostering job creation, bridging infrastructure gaps, and promoting sustainable development. Achieving progress in these areas is crucial for India's long-term economic and social development.

Ways forward for India

Inclusive Growth

  • Prioritizing inclusive growth involves policies and initiatives that ensure economic benefits reach all segments of society, including marginalized communities.
  • Social safety nets, targeted welfare programs, and equitable access to healthcare and education can help reduce income inequality.
  • Special attention should be given to bridging the urban-rural divide and promoting development in economically disadvantaged regions.

Infrastructure Investment

  • Continued investment in infrastructure, including transportation, energy, and digital connectivity, is vital for sustaining economic growth.
  • Infrastructure development not only supports economic activities but also creates jobs and enhances the overall quality of life.
  • Public-private partnerships (PPPs) can play a crucial role in financing and executing infrastructure projects.

Education and Skill Development

  • Improving the quality of education and expanding access to skill development programs is essential to creating a workforce that meets the demands of a rapidly changing economy.
  • Collaboration between the government, industry, and educational institutions can help align education and training with industry requirements.
  • Promoting digital literacy is also crucial in the age of technology-driven economies.


  • Sustainable practices, including the adoption of renewable energy sources and green technologies, are vital for mitigating environmental challenges.
  • India has set ambitious renewable energy targets and is actively promoting solar and wind energy projects.
  • Sustainable urban planning and conservation efforts can help reduce the environmental impact of rapid urbanization.

Innovation and Research

  • Fostering innovation and research can drive technological advancements, improve productivity, and enhance India's global competitiveness.
  • Encouraging startups, providing research grants, and creating an environment conducive to innovation can attract talent and investment.
  • Collaboration between academia, industry, and the government can promote research and development.


  • India's journey towards sustained economic growth and development is indeed dynamic and multifaceted. By focusing on inclusive growth, infrastructure development, education, sustainability, and innovation, India can harness its immense potential and overcome challenges to achieve long-term economic prosperity while safeguarding the well-being of its citizens and the environment.

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