IAS Gyan

Daily News Analysis


9th January, 2024 Environment


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  • In a significant discovery, the endangered hog deer has been spotted for the first time at the Rajaji Tiger Reserve.

Hog Deer

  • Hog Deer (Axis porcinus) is a small to medium-sized deer species native to South and Southeast Asia. Known for its distinctive appearance and behavior, the hog deer holds ecological significance and has cultural importance in the regions it inhabits.


  • Small to medium-sized deer native to South and Southeast Asia.
  • Distinctive reddish-brown coat with white spots, known for lowering heads like hogs when running.

Habitat and Distribution:

  • Found in grasslands, swamps, and deciduous forests.
  • Distributed across South and Southeast Asia, including India, Nepal, Bangladesh, Myanmar, Thailand, and Vietnam.

Behavior and Diet:

  • Crepuscular, active during dawn and dusk.
  • Selective browsers, feeding on grasses, herbs, and shrubs.

Conservation Status:

  • Listed as "Endangered" on the IUCN Red List.
  • Localized threats from habitat loss, poaching, and human-wildlife conflict.

Conservation Measures:

  • Focus on habitat preservation, anti-poaching, and community engagement.
  • Protected areas and wildlife corridors crucial for conservation.

Human-Wildlife Conflict:

  • Increasing instances due to habitat encroachment.
  • Conservation organizations work on coexistence strategies.

Cultural Significance:

  • Holds cultural importance in some regions, reflected in folklore and traditions. 

Rajaji Tiger Reserve


  • Located in the Shivalik range of Uttarakhand, India.
  • Encompasses three wildlife sanctuaries: Rajaji, Motichur, and Chilla.


  • Declared a national park in 1983.
  • Designated as a Tiger Reserve in 2015.


  • Rich in flora and fauna with diverse ecosystems.
  • Houses Bengal tigers, Asian elephants, leopards, and numerous bird species.


  • Serves as an important wildlife corridor, connecting the ecosystems of the Himalayas and the Shivaliks.

Conservation Significance:

  • Aims at conserving charismatic megafauna and preserving biodiversity.
  • Part of the Terai Arc Landscape initiative.

Human-Wildlife Conflict:

  • Faces challenges due to human settlements and agriculture encroaching on wildlife habitats.
  • Conservation efforts include community engagement for sustainable coexistence.


  • Allows ecotourism, providing opportunities for wildlife enthusiasts.
  • Safari options to explore the diverse landscapes and wildlife.


  • Rajaji Tiger Reserve, nestled in the Shivaliks, stands as a vital conservation area, contributing to biodiversity preservation and facilitating crucial wildlife connectivity.


Question: Which of the following characteristics accurately describes the Hog Deer (Axis porcinus), a species native to South and Southeast Asia?

  1. Hog Deer exhibits a predominantly black coat with distinct white spots.
  2. Adult Hog Deer typically weigh over 200 kg, making them one of the largest deer species.
  3. They are known for their bipedal locomotion, standing on hind legs for prolonged periods.
  4. Hog Deer populations are primarily concentrated in the arid regions of Central Asia.

Answer: Select the correct statement from the options below:

A. Only 1

B. Only 2

C. Only 3

D. Only 4

E. None of the above

Correct Answer: E. None of the above


Option 1 is incorrect because Hog Deer typically have a reddish-brown coat with distinct white spots, not a predominantly black coat.

Option 2 is incorrect as adult Hog Deer typically weigh between 50 to 150 kg, and they are not one of the largest deer species.

Option 3 is incorrect because Hog Deer do not exhibit bipedal locomotion; they move on all four legs like other deer species.

Option 4 is incorrect because Hog Deer populations are found in South and Southeast Asia, not in the arid regions of Central Asia.

Therefore, the correct answer is E. None of the above, as none of the statements accurately describes the characteristics of Hog Deer.


Match the Following:

Column I (Wildlife Reserves)

Column II (States)

1. Dibang Wildlife Sanctuary

A. Arunachal Pradesh

2. Simlipal National Park

B. Odisha

3. Kalesar National Park

C. Haryana

4. Rajaji Tiger Reserve

D. Uttarakhand

Top of Form


A. 1-B, 2-A, 3-C, 4-D

B. 1-A, 2-C, 3-B, 4-D

C. 1-C, 2-A, 3-B, 4-D

D. 1-A, 2-B, 3-C, 4-D

Answer: B. 1-A, 2-C, 3-B, 4-D


  1. Dibang Wildlife Sanctuary is located in Arunachal Pradesh.
  2. Simlipal National Park is situated in Odisha.
  3. Kalesar National Park is in Haryana.
  4. Rajaji Tiger Reserve is in Uttarakhand.

Therefore, the correct match is 1-A, 2-C, 3-B, 4-D.