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Explained: The anatomy of the cannabis plant — what is illegal under NDPS Act, what is not

10th October, 2020 GOVERNANCE

What is the cannabis plant?

  • According to the World Health Organization (WHO), cannabis is a generic term used to denote the several psychoactive preparations of the plant Cannabis sativa.
  • The major psychoactive constituent in cannabis is Delta-9 tetrahydrocannabinol (THC).
  • The Mexican name ‘marijuana‘is frequently used in referring to cannabis leaves or other crude plant material in many countries.
  • Most species of cannabis are dioecious plants that can be identified as either male or female.
  • The unpollinated female plants are called hashish.
  • Cannabis oil (hashish oil) is a concentrate of cannabinoids — compounds which are structurally similar to THC — obtained by solvent extraction of the crude plant material or of the resin.
  • The WHO says that cannabis is by far the most widely cultivated, trafficked and abused illicit drug in the world.

How does the NDPS Act define cannabis?

  • According to the NDPS Act “cannabis plant” means any plant of the genus cannabis.
  • The legislation that was enacted in 1985 succeeded the Dangerous Drugs Act, 1930.
  • It was introduced as lawmakers felt that the older legislation that entailed a maximum punishment of up to four years was not strict enough to check drug trafficking.
  • Under section 2 (iii), the Act defines cannabis (hemp). The sub-sections refer to parts of the plant that come under the purview of the Act.
  • ‘Charas’ is the separated resin extracted from the cannabis plant.
  • The NDPS Act includes concentrated preparation and resin known as hashish oil or liquid hashish.
  • Charas is also commonly called ‘hash’.
  • Section 2(iii) (b) of the NDPS Act defines ‘ganja’ as the flowering or fruiting tops of the cannabis plant but it clearly excludes the seeds and leaves, when not accompanied by the tops, by whatever name they may be known or designated.
  • Street names for the drug include ‘weed’ and ‘marijuana’.
  • The Act also illegalizes any mixture with or without any neutral material, of any of the two forms of cannabis – charas and ganja — or any drink prepared from it.

Are substances made from cannabis leaves also illegal under the NDPS Act?

  • As defined in the Act, the legislature left seeds and leaves of the cannabis plant out of the ambit of the NDPS Act.
  • The serrated leaves of the plant have negligible THC content.
  • THC is the psychoactive or intoxicating compound present in the cannabis plant that is mainly responsible for giving consumers the ‘high’. ‘
  • Bhang’, which is commonly consumed during festivals like Holi, is a paste made out of the leaves of the cannabis plant, and is hence not outlawed.

Then why is the use of CBD oil still contentious in India?

  • The NDPS Act does not permit the recreational use of cannabis in India.
  • While CBD oil manufactured with a license under the Drugs and Cosmetics Act, 1940 can be legally used, it is not very common.