IAS Gyan

Daily News Analysis


1st March, 2024 International News


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Picture Courtesy: https://www.downtoearth.org.in/news/africa/african-leaders-demand-financial-systems-reform-launch-africa-club-at-37th-african-union-summit-94687

Context: African leaders at the 37th African Union Summit stressed the need for changes to the global financial system to better address the specific needs of African countries, particularly regarding climate change and development.


  • The 37th African Union (AU) Summit concluded with a strong emphasis on the need for reform in the global financial system to address the pressing issues of climate change and development in African countries.

Launch of Alliance of African Multilateral Financial Institutions, 'Africa Club'

  • The 'Africa Club' was established, comprising African-owned and controlled multilateral financial institutions.
  • Its objective is to align financial functions with Sustainable Development Goals (SDGs) and the AU's Agenda 2063, introduce innovative financial instruments, and foster collaboration to address African countries' specific needs.

Establishing African Union Financial Institutions

  • Leaders reiterated the need for establishing an African Monetary Union through the creation of three AU financial institutions: the African Central Bank, the African Monetary Fund, and the African Investment Bank.
  • A proposal was made to assess the feasibility of creating a Pan-African Stock Exchange, although the creation of these institutions has faced challenges in the past.

African Leaders' Demands for Financial System Reforms

Leaders outlined priorities for addressing structural imbalances in the global financial architecture, including:

  • Creating solutions to the debt crisis.
  • Increasing grant and concessional money to Africa.
  • Rechanneling Special Drawing Rights (SDR) issued by the International Monetary Fund (IMF) to African financial institutions.
  • Increasing African representation and power in global decision-making bodies.
  • Committing to an ambitious green growth agenda for Africa.

Presidential Dialogue on Africa’s Agenda for Global Financial Architecture Reform

  • Heads of state discussed strategies to address Africa's financial needs, emphasizing the necessity to triple concessional resources from the IMF and World Bank to African development banks.
  • Advocated for rechanneling IMF SDRs to multilateral development banks for financing climate action and including middle-income countries in the G20 Common Framework for debt restructuring.

Proposals by the President of Ghana

  • Proposed that 30% of all African reserves held in non-African banks be made available to African multilateral financial institutions.
  • Suggested designating these institutions as 'AU agencies' to signal cohesive approval from all AU sovereigns.

African Union

Key Points



Established in July 2001, in Addis Ababa, Ethiopia


55 member states, representing all of Africa


Unity and solidarity among African countries

Peace, security, and stability on the continent

Socio-economic integration and development

Advocate for Africa's interests globally

Decision Making Bodies

Assembly of the Union (heads of state/government)

Executive Council (foreign ministers)

Pan-African Parliament (legislative body)

AU Commission

Serves as the secretariat of the AU, responsible for the implementation of policies and decisions.

Led by a Chairperson and includes Commissioners in charge of various portfolios such as peace and security, political affairs, and social affairs.

AU Peace and Security Council (PSC)

Established to prevent conflicts, promote peacekeeping efforts, and facilitate post-conflict reconstruction.

It has 15 members, elected by the Assembly, and operates similarly to the United Nations Security Council in addressing peace and security issues on the continent.

Economic Community Regions (RECs)

The AU is divided into several Regional Economic Communities (RECs) to promote economic integration and development within specific geographic regions, fostering collaboration and shared economic objectives among member states.

Key Initiatives

Agenda 2063: A strategic framework for the socio-economic transformation of the continent, outlining aspirations for development over the next 50 years.

African Continental Free Trade Area (AfCFTA): Aims to create a single market for goods and services across the continent, enhancing intra-Africa trade and fostering economic integration.

Recent Developments

The AU granted full member status to the Group of 20 (G20), indicating Africa's growing influence on the global stage.

Launch of the Alliance of African Multilateral Financial Institutions (Africa Club).


  • The AU Summit highlighted the continent's demand for significant reforms in the global financial system to address the specific challenges faced by African countries in climate change mitigation and sustainable development.

Must Read Articles:

AFRICAN UNION TO JOIN G-20: https://www.iasgyan.in/daily-current-affairs/african-union-to-join-g-20


Q. India has expertise in agricultural development relevant to Africa's needs. However, critics argue that some Indian agricultural practices prioritize rapid expansion over long-term sustainability.  How can India and the AU balance immediate food security needs with environmental concerns and ensure agricultural partnerships are truly sustainable?