IAS Gyan



28th March, 2024 Prelims


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Equity-Based Financing: This type involves raising capital by selling shares or ownership stakes in the company. Investors provide funds in exchange for ownership equity, which means they become shareholders and have a claim on the company's profits.

Debt-Based Financing: Involves borrowing money from lenders with the promise of repayment, usually with interest, over a specified period. It typically involves loans or bonds and requires the borrower to repay the principal amount plus interest.

Royalty-Based Financing: Raising capital by selling a percentage of future revenue or royalties generated by a product or intellectual property. Investors receive a share of the revenue generated from the product or IP as a return on their investment.

Profit-Sharing Financing: Allows investors to share in the profits generated by a business in exchange for providing capital. The investors receive a portion of the company's profits based on the terms of the agreement.

Asset-Based Financing: Using assets, such as inventory, accounts receivable, or equipment, as collateral to secure a loan. Lenders provide funds based on the value of the assets, and the borrower must repay the loan according to the agreed terms.

Crowdfunding: Raising small amounts of money from a large number of people, typically through online platforms. It allows businesses to access capital from a wide range of investors or supporters who contribute funds in exchange for rewards, equity, or other incentives.

Convertible Note Financing: A type of debt that can be converted into equity in the future, usually at the discretion of the investor. It allows startups to raise capital quickly while deferring the valuation of the company until a later date.

Mezzanine Financing: A hybrid form of financing that combines debt and equity elements. It typically involves subordinated debt or preferred equity and is used to bridge the gap between senior debt and equity financing.

Invoice Financing: Using unpaid invoices as collateral to secure a loan. Lenders provide funds based on the value of outstanding invoices, and the borrower repays the loan when the invoices are paid.

Trade Credit: Purchasing goods or services on credit terms from suppliers or vendors. It allows businesses to acquire inventory or raw materials without immediate payment and is often used as a short-term financing solution.

Vendor Financing: Obtaining financing directly from a supplier or vendor. The supplier extends credit terms to the buyer, allowing them to purchase goods or services on credit and pay at a later date.

Peer-to-Peer Lending: Borrowing money directly from individuals or investors through online platforms. It bypasses traditional financial institutions and allows borrowers to access funds from a network of individual lenders.

Revenue Sharing Agreements: Sharing a percentage of future revenue with investors in exchange for providing capital. The investors receive a share of the company's revenue for a specified period or until they have received a predetermined return on their investment.

Performance-Based Financing: Providing capital based on the achievement of specific performance metrics or milestones. Investors may receive additional funding or incentives based on the company's performance or success.

Subscription-Based Financing: Raising capital through subscription agreements or ongoing contributions from investors. Investors commit to providing funds over a period of time in exchange for equity or other incentives.

Factoring: Selling accounts receivable or invoices to a third-party financial institution, known as a factor, at a discount. The factor provides immediate cash to the seller in exchange for the right to collect payments from customers.

Lease Financing: Obtaining capital by leasing or renting equipment, vehicles, or other assets instead of purchasing them outright. It allows businesses to access assets without a large upfront investment and may include options to buy the assets at the end of the lease term.

Angel Investing: Providing capital to early-stage startups or entrepreneurs in exchange for equity ownership. Angel investors typically provide funding, mentorship, and expertise to help startups grow and succeed.

Bridge Financing: Obtaining short-term funding to bridge a gap between two transactions or financing rounds. It is often used to provide capital while waiting for a larger funding round or to finance a specific project or acquisition.

Line of Credit Financing: Obtaining access to a revolving line of credit from a financial institution. Businesses can borrow funds up to a predetermined credit limit and repay the borrowed amount, plus interest, as needed. It provides flexibility and liquidity for short-term financing needs.

Venture Capital: Investing in early-stage or growth-stage companies with high growth potential in exchange for equity ownership. Venture capitalists provide capital, expertise, and support to help startups grow and become successful.

Private Equity: Investing in privately-held companies or taking publicly-traded companies private. Private equity firms provide capital in exchange for equity ownership and often take an active role in managing and growing the companies they invest in.

Seed Financing: Providing capital to startups in the earliest stages of development. It typically comes from angel investors, friends and family, or early-stage venture capital firms.

Series A Financing: The first significant round of funding for startups after seed financing. It typically involves larger investments from venture capital firms in exchange for preferred stock or convertible debt.

Series B Financing: The second round of funding for startups, usually after they have demonstrated significant progress and growth. It typically involves larger investments to help the company scale operations and expand into new markets.

Series C Financing: The third round of funding for startups, typically used to fuel further growth, expansion, or acquisitions. It may involve investments from venture capital firms, private equity firms, or strategic investors.

Initial Public Offering (IPO): The process of offering shares of a private company to the public for the first time. It allows the company to raise capital by selling shares to investors on public stock exchanges.

Follow-On Offering: Occurs when a company issues additional shares of stock after its IPO. It allows the company to raise additional capital or provide liquidity to existing shareholders.

Equity Crowdfunding: Raising capital from a large number of investors, typically through online platforms, in exchange for equity ownership in the company. It allows startups to access capital from a broad investor base.

Initial Coin Offering (ICO): A fundraising method used by cryptocurrency startups to raise capital by selling digital tokens or coins to investors. It allows investors to support new projects and potentially profit from the success of the project.

Security Token Offering (STO): A fundraising method similar to an ICO but involves selling digital tokens that represent ownership rights in an underlying asset or security. STOs are subject to securities regulations and provide investors with legal protections.

Debt Financing: Borrowing money from lenders with the promise of repayment, usually with interest, over a specified period. It includes loans, bonds, lines of credit, and other debt instruments.

Asset-Based Lending: Obtaining financing by using assets, such as inventory, accounts receivable, or equipment, as collateral. Lenders provide funds based on the value of the assets, reducing the risk for the lender.

Commercial Paper: A short-term debt instrument issued by corporations to raise capital for financing short-term liabilities, such as payroll or inventory. It typically matures in less than one year and is sold at a discount to face value.

Merchant Cash Advance: A form of financing that provides businesses with a lump sum of capital in exchange for a percentage of future credit card sales. It is often used by businesses with irregular cash flow or seasonal sales patterns. Microfinance: Providing financial services, such as small loans, savings accounts, and insurance, to low-income individuals or communities who lack access to traditional banking services. It aims to promote financial inclusion.

Sale-Leaseback: A sale-leaseback transaction involves selling an asset, such as real estate or equipment, to a buyer and then leasing it back from the buyer. It allows the seller to unlock capital tied up in the asset while retaining its use.

Islamic Finance: Islamic finance is a financial system that operates in accordance with Islamic law (Shariah). It prohibits interest (riba) and involves principles such as profit and loss sharing (mudarabah), risk sharing (musharakah), and asset-backed financing (ijara).

Green Finance: Green finance refers to financial products and services that support environmentally sustainable projects and initiatives. It includes investments in renewable energy, energy efficiency, green bonds, and sustainable infrastructure.

Sweat Equity: Contribution to a business in the form of labor or services rather than cash investment.

Reverse Factoring: Supply chain finance arrangement where a financing institution advances funds to suppliers based on invoices approved by a creditworthy buyer.

Catastrophe Bonds: Risk-linked securities that transfer specific risks, such as natural disasters, from the issuer to investors, with payouts triggered by predefined events.

Social Impact Bonds: Innovative financing instruments where private investors provide upfront capital for social programs, with returns tied to the achievement of predefined social outcomes.

Warehouse Financing: Short-term financing secured by inventory held in a warehouse, with the inventory serving as collateral for the loan.

Off-Balance-Sheet Financing: Financing method where a company can acquire assets or incur liabilities without affecting its balance sheet, often through operating leases or special purpose entities.

Perpetual Bonds: Bonds with no maturity date, paying periodic interest indefinitely, often used by governments and corporations as a form of permanent capital.

Payment-in-Kind (PIK) Loans: Loans where interest payments are made in the form of additional debt rather than cash, increasing the borrower's debt burden.

Revenue Anticipation Bonds: Bonds issued by governments to finance projects or cover expenses, with repayment secured by anticipated future revenues.

Remittance Financing: Using remittances from migrants or expatriates as a source of financing for personal or business activities in their home countries.

Purchase Order Financing: Providing financing to fulfill confirmed purchase orders, enabling businesses to fulfill large orders without immediate payment.

Shadow Banking: Non-bank financial intermediaries that provide credit and liquidity services outside the traditional banking system, such as hedge funds and money market funds.

Sovereign Wealth Funds: Investment funds owned by governments, typically funded by surpluses from foreign exchange reserves, commodity exports, or other sources, used to invest in domestic and foreign assets for long-term wealth preservation and growth.