IAS Gyan


  • Prelims
  • 17 Mar, 2023

    PAN  is an abbreviation of Permanent Account Number. The Income Tax Department of India assigns an alphanumeric, 10-digit unique number to each taxpayer. Each PAN number is unique and different for each individual.

    The PAN number keeps track of a person’s financial activities and is required for all forms of payment

    A PAN card appears to be a physical plastic card with one’s PAN number, name, DOB, and a photograph printed on it.

    The PAN number is valid for life because it is unaffected by changes in address or job profile and can thus be used as proof of identity.

  • Prelims
  • 16 Mar, 2023

    The National Informatics Centre (NIC) is an Indian government department under the Ministry of Electronics and Information Technology (MeitY). The NIC provides infrastructure, IT Consultancy, IT Services including but not limited to architecting, design, development and implementation of IT Systems to Central Government Departments and State Governments thus enabling delivery of government services to Citizens and pioneering the initiatives of Digital India.


  • Prelims
  • 10 Mar, 2023

    India has approximately 66% of the forest cover worldwide and is ranked among the top 10 countries globally. The country has many jungles and wildlife sanctuaries.

    Different types of forests in India are Tropical Evergreen Forests, Deciduous or Rain Forests, Dry Deciduous Forests, Mountain Forests, Tidal or, Mangrove Forests, Semi-Desert and Desert vegetation, etc. The biggest percentage of Dry thorn and tropical deciduous forests are found in Madhya Pradesh, Uttar Pradesh, Orissa, Chhattisgarh, etc. 

    Jim Corbett national park, Kanha, Gir, Bandipur, Nagarhole, Namdapha, Wayanad wildlife sanctuary etc., are the most famous forests in India.

  • Prelims
  • 29 Jan, 2023
  • The 16 Mahajanapadas

    Mahajanapadas is a Sanskrit word (महाजनपद, Mahājanapadas) which means "Great Kingdoms" (from Maha, "great", and Janapada "foothold of a tribe", "country"). Ancient Buddhist texts make frequent reference to sixteen great kingdoms and republics which had evolved and flourished in the northern/north-western parts of the Indian sub-continent prior to the rise of Buddhism in India. The Mahājanapadas were sixteen kingdoms or oligarchic republics that existed in ancient India from the sixth to fourth centuries BCE during the second-urbanization period.

  • Prelims
  • 12 Dec, 2022

    Graphene is a one-atom-thick sheet of carbon atoms arranged in a honeycomb-like pattern. It is an  is an allotrope of carbon. Graphene is considered to be the world's thinnest, strongest and most conductive material - of both electricity and heat. All of these properties are exciting researchers and businesses around the world - as graphene has the potential to revolutionize entire industries - in the fields of electricity, conductivity, energy generation, batteries, sensors and more.

  • Prelims
  • 14 Nov, 2022
  • Space Communication

    There are two types of communication systems: radio frequency (RF) and free space optical (FSO) also referred to as laser communications (lasercom).

    Most spacecraft communications systems are radio frequency based - one part of the electromagnetic spectrum.

    Satellites communicate by using radio waves to send signals to the antennas on the Earth. The antennas then capture those signals and process the information coming from those signals. Information can include:

    • scientific data (like the pictures the satellite took),
    • the health of the satellite, and
    • where the satellite is currently located in space.
  • Prelims
  • 27 Aug, 2022

    Copy number variation

    Copy number variation (abbreviated CNV) refers to a circumstance in which the number of copies of a specific segment of DNA varies among different individuals’ genomes. The individual variants may be short or include thousands of bases. These structural differences may have come about through duplications, deletions or other changes and can affect long stretches of DNA. Such regions may or may not contain a gene(s).



    CRISPR (short for “clustered regularly interspaced short palindromic repeats”) is a technology that research scientists use to selectively modify the DNA of living organisms. CRISPR was adapted for use in the laboratory from naturally occurring genome editing systems found in bacteria.