There are two types of communication systems: radio frequency (RF) and free space optical (FSO) also referred to as laser communications (lasercom).
Most spacecraft communications systems are radio frequency based - one part of the electromagnetic spectrum.
Satellites communicate by using radio waves to send signals to the antennas on the Earth. The antennas then capture those signals and process the information coming from those signals. Information can include:
- scientific data (like the pictures the satellite took),
- the health of the satellite, and
- where the satellite is currently located in space.
Copy number variation
Copy number variation (abbreviated CNV) refers to a circumstance in which the number of copies of a specific segment of DNA varies among different individuals’ genomes. The individual variants may be short or include thousands of bases. These structural differences may have come about through duplications, deletions or other changes and can affect long stretches of DNA. Such regions may or may not contain a gene(s).
CRISPR (short for “clustered regularly interspaced short palindromic repeats”) is a technology that research scientists use to selectively modify the DNA of living organisms. CRISPR was adapted for use in the laboratory from naturally occurring genome editing systems found in bacteria.
Rivers hаve рlаyed а signifiсаnt rоle in аll the greаt humаn сivilizаtiоns оf the wоrld, whether it wаs Egyрtiаn Сivilizаtiоn аrоund the River Nile оr Mesороtаmiаn Сivilizаtiоn neаr the Tigris River. Rivers in Indiа рlаy аn imроrtаnt rоle in Indiа’s eсоnоmy аs Indiа is аn аgriсulture-dоminаted соuntry. Neаrly 70% рорulаtiоn оf Indiа deрends direсtly оr indireсtly оn the river fоr their livelihооd.
Virus, Spyware, Trojan, Worm, Malware
These terms are often confused, although they have distinct meanings.
A virus is a piece of software that can copy itself and which attaches itself to some other program in order to survive and replicate. It may have some malicious intent or it may exist simply to reproduce. A worm is similar but it can exist independently; it doesn’t need to attach to a separate program. A Trojan – or Trojan Horse – is a piece of software that gains access to a computer by pretending to be benign or by hiding within some innocent-looking application. The name is obviously derived from the wooden horse employed by the Greek army during the Trojan Wars. Spyware is software that secretly monitors computer activity, attempting to gain private information without the computer user knowing.
By and large, all of the above will have some malicious intent – to harm data, spy on computer activity and so forth. Malware is a general term for all such programs – it simply means any software, of whatever sort, written with a malicious intent. Viruses are generally malware but there is more to malware than just viruses.
Rаdiо wаves аre а tyрe оf eleсtrоmаgnetiс rаdiаtiоn best-knоwn fоr their use in соmmuniсаtiоn teсhnоlоgies, suсh аs televisiоn, mоbile рhоnes аnd rаdiоs. These deviсes reсeive rаdiо wаves аnd соnvert them tо meсhаniсаl vibrаtiоns in the sрeаker tо сreаte sоund wаves.
The rаdiо-frequenсy sрeсtrum is а relаtively smаll раrt оf the eleсtrоmаgnetiс (EM) sрeсtrum. The EM sрeсtrum is generаlly divided intо seven regiоns in оrder оf deсreаsing wаvelength аnd inсreаsing energy аnd frequenсy. The соmmоn designаtiоns аre rаdiо wаves, miсrоwаves, infrаred (IR), visible light, ultrаviоlet (UV), X-rаys аnd gаmmа-rаys.
The co-operative banking industry in India plays a very important role in uplifting the economically weaker section of society. Initially started with the aim of helping the poor by providing financial help at a minimal rate of interest, co-operative banks are regulated by the Reserve Bank of India. Over the years, co-operative banks have been facing some tough challenges, but have managed to stay afloat, firmly.