IAS Gyan

Daily News Analysis


23rd January, 2024 Geography


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The Wular Lake has got around four to five lakh migratory birds so far this winter, including seven new species.


Wular lake

  • Wular Lake, also known as Wolar in Kashmiri, is one of the largest fresh water lakes in South Asia and The lake is one of the 75 Indian wetlands designated as a Ramsar site in 23 March 1990.
  • Ancient name and historical importance: In ancient times, Wular Lake was also called Mahapadmasar. The Kashmiri sultan Zain-ul-Abidin is reputed to have ordered the construction of the artificial island of Zaina Lank in the middle of the lake in 1444.
  • Location: It is located near Bandipora town in the Bandipora district of Jammu and Kashmir, India. 
  • Formation:The lake basin was formed as a result of tectonic activity and is fed by the Jhelum River as primary source and stream Madhumati and Arin.

Flora and Fauna

  • Fish: Wular Lake is an important fish habitat, Fish from Wular Lake make up a significant part of the diet for many and more than eight thousand fishermen earn their livelihood from the lake, primarily fishing for the endemic Schizothorax species and the non-native carp.
  • Birds: The lake sustains a rich population of birds. Terrestrial birds observed around the lake include the black-eared kite, Eurasian sparrowhawk, short-toed eagle, Himalayan golden eagle, Himalayan monal, chukar partridge, koklass pheasant, rock dove, common cuckoo, alpine swift, Indian roller, Himalayan woodpecker, hoopoe, barn swallow, golden oriole and others.
  • Migratory Birds: (Recent development) According to official Census figures the arrival of migratory birds ranged between eight to 12 lakh in 2022-23 and 11 to 12 lakh in 2021-22.
  • In past 12 months, the clean waters of the lake has even attracted some rare species, such as Falcated Duck, Horned Grebe, Western Reef Heron, Smew Duck, Long-tailed Duck, Pacific Golden Polover and the Broad-billed Sandpiper.

Environmental  threats

  • Illegal change of its use by converting large parts of the lake’s catchment areas into agricultural land and infestation of weeds that have hidden the lake waters and considerably shrunk it

Tulbul Project:

  • Dispute: The Tulbul Project is a "navigation lock-cum-control structure" at the mouth of Wular Lake. There has been an ongoing dispute between India and Pakistan over the Tulbul Project since 1987, when Pakistan objected that it violated the 1960 Indus Waters Treaty (IWT). India stopped work on the project that year, but has since pressed to restart construction.


An integrated management plan conceived by Wetlands International South Asia is now under implementation by the Government of Jammu and Kashmir, India. The plan proposes a series of measures within the lake and its catchments to ensure rejuvenation of the wetland and livelihood security of associated communities.


Q. Tulbul Navigation Project was constructed in which of the following Lake?

A.Wular Lake

B.Anchar Lake

C.Dal Lake

D.Gangbal Lake

Answer A.