IAS Gyan

Daily News Analysis


20th September, 2023 Environment

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About World Ozone Day

  • On September 16, the world observes World Ozone Day, also known as the International Day for the Preservation of the Ozone Layer.
  • Every year, it is observed to raise public awareness of the depletion of the Ozone Layer and the steps done/to be taken to maintain it.
  • The theme for World Ozone Day 2023 is “Montreal Protocol: fixing the ozone layer and reducing climate change”.


  • The International Day for the Preservation of the Ozone Layer was established by the United Nations General Assembly in 1994 to commemorate the signing of the Montreal Protocol on Ozone Depleting Substances in 1987.
  • The protocol was signed on September 16, 1987, in Montreal, Canada, to address ozone depletion.

Montreal Protocol

  • It is an international pact aimed at reducing the production and consumption of ozone-depleting substances, primarily CFCs, halons, carbon tetrachloride, and other chemicals.
  • These chemicals were widely employed in refrigeration, air conditioning, and aerosol propellants.

Kigali Agreement

  • The Kigali Agreement is a modification to the Montreal Protocol.
  • It was adopted as an extension of the Montreal Protocol on October 15, 2016, in Kigali, Rwanda.
  • While the original Montreal Protocol focused on phasing out ozone-depleting compounds, the Kigali Amendment focuses on phasing out hydrofluorocarbons (HFCs), which are used as ozone-depleting substance replacements.
  • The Kigali Amendment's major goal is to minimize HFC production and use in order to mitigate their contribution to global warming.

Facts on Ozone

  • Ozone (O3) is a gas composed of three oxygen atoms (O3).
  • It is both a natural and man-made product that occurs in the Earth's upper (stratosphere) and lower (troposphere) atmospheres.
  • The "ozone layer," or naturally occurring ozone in the stratosphere, forms a protective barrier that inhibits ultraviolet sunshine (UV-B) radiation from the sun from reaching the Earth's surface and destroying plant and animal life. This is usually known as "good ozone."
  • Tropospheric or ground-level ozone, which humans breathe, is principally generated by photochemical processes involving two primary groups of air pollutants: volatile organic compounds (VOC) and nitrogen oxides (NOx).
  • High amounts of ozone at ground level are hazardous to humans and plants.


Discuss the causes of excessive GHG emissions from agriculture and methods that can be taken to reduce emissions.