IAS Gyan

Daily News Analysis

World Migration Report 2024

10th May, 2024 International Relations

World Migration Report 2024

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  • According to the World Migration Report 2024 More human beings are facing forced displacement today than at any other time in humankind’s history.
  • Such forced displacement is being further exacerbated by environmental impacts and climate change.

Findings :

  • The report analyzes both the Global North (Europe and North America) and the Global South (Africa, Asia, Latin America and the Caribbean, and Oceania) to depict the impact of climate change on human migration.
  • Focus on Africa: Within the Global South, the report zooms in on Africa, examining subregions such as North Africa, West and Central Africa, East Africa, and Southern Africa.
  • North Africa's Climate Challenges:
    • Warming Trends: Significant warming has been observed in North Africa over recent decades.
    • Decreased Rainfall: Countries like Libya, Algeria, and Morocco have experienced reduced rainfall during the wet season, which enhances water scarcity issues.
    • Projected Displacements: The World Bank projects millions of people in North Africa may be forced to migrate within their countries due to climate change impacts if no effective action is taken.
  • Specific Country Instances:
    • Libya: Continues to face challenges from the Arab Spring. Local militias have weaponised water scarcity, and used water infrastructure to attack the central government and other rivals. Libya also witnessed the ‘Medicane’ Daniel last year which devastated the port city of Derna.

●Storm Daniel, also known as Cyclone Daniel, was the deadliest Mediterranean tropical-like cyclone in recorded history, as well as one of the costliest tropical cyclones on record outside of the North Atlantic Ocean, forming as a low-pressure systems around 4 September 2023.

  • Algeria and Morocco: Significant displacements was triggered by droughts and wildfires.
  • Impact of Sahel: The Sahel region acts as a barrier between North Africa and the rest of the continent, but decreased rainfall in the region has contributed to drought vulnerability.
  • Disasters in Sub-Saharan Africa:
    • Nigeria: Experienced the highest number of internal displacements in sub-Saharan Africa in 2022, primarily due to floods between June and November.
  • Climate Challenges in South and East Africa:
    • Ethiopia and Somalia: Over 2 million internal displacements due to drought by May 2023.
    • Kenya, Ethiopia, and Somalia: Over 866,000 refugees and asylum-seekers are living in drought-affected areas at the beginning of 2023.
    • Southern Africa: Increased frequency and intensity of climate-related disasters, such as Cyclone Freddy has caused significant casualties and displacements in Malawi, Mozambique, and Madagascar.

Migration as driver for growth:

  • The report highlights that international migration remains a driver of human development and economic growth, highlighted by a more than 650 per cent increase in international remittances from 2000 to 2022, rising from USD 128 billion to USD 831 billion. The growth continued despite predictions from many analysts that remittances would decrease substantially because of COVID-19.
  • Of that 831 billion in remittances, 647 billion were sent by migrants to low– and middle-income countries. These remittances can constitute a significant portion of those countries' GDPs, and globally, these remittances now surpass foreign direct investment in those countries.

Displacement crisis:

  • With an estimated 281 million international migrants worldwide, the number of displaced individuals due to conflict, violence, disaster, and other reasons has surged to the highest levels in modern-day records, reaching 117 million, underscoring the urgency of addressing displacement crises.

Climate change as driver:

  • More than 216 million people across six continents will face migration within their countries by 2050 in large part due to climate change.

Causes of displacement :

  • Apart from Climate change, food insecurity or migration, political power, incompetent governance, globalised food production and other social factors also play a role in migration. Climate change increase pressure on existing systems and communities.

Adaptation tool against climate change:

  • According to the report, migration is a coping or adaptation strategy to reduce the adverse effects of climate change.

No continent unaffected

  • All the region of the planet inhabited by humans is unaffected due to climate change and the consequent migration of people. 

About The World Migration Report 2024:

  • The World Migration Report was first published by IOM in 2000 with the aim of promoting "a better understanding of the main migratory movements that are occurring across the globe".
  • After that It is being released biennially.

International Maritime Organization (IMO):

●Establishment: The IMO is a specialized agency of the United Nations responsible for regulating shipping on a global scale. It was established in 1948 and became operational in 1959.

●Mandate: The primary mandate of the IMO is to promote maritime safety, security, and environmental protection in the international shipping industry.

●Regulatory Framework: The IMO develops and maintains a comprehensive regulatory framework for shipping, including conventions, protocols, guidelines, and codes of practice. These regulations cover various aspects such as vessel construction, navigation, crew training, pollution prevention, and maritime security.

●Safety of Life at Sea (SOLAS): The IMO's most important convention is the International Convention for the Safety of Life at Sea (SOLAS), which sets minimum safety standards for ships, equipment, and operations.

●Marine Pollution Prevention: The IMO addresses marine pollution through conventions like the International Convention for the Prevention of Pollution from Ships (MARPOL), which regulates pollution from ships in areas such as oil spills, sewage, garbage disposal, and air emissions.

●Ship Security: The IMO's International Ship and Port Facility Security (ISPS) Code establishes measures to enhance the security of ships and port facilities against threats of terrorism and unlawful acts.


  • The findings gives blurred picture of the multifaceted impacts of climate change across Africa, from North Africa's water scarcity and wildfires to sub-Saharan Africa's vulnerability to droughts and floods.






Q.”Critically Analyze the challenges and opportunities presented by global migration trends highlighted in the report, and suggest policy measures for governments to address the complexities of contemporary migration dynamics.”(250 words)