IAS Gyan

Daily News Analysis


27th December, 2022 Economy

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  • The High Court of Karnataka has restrained Boman R. Irani of Rustomjee Group, and Classic Legends Pvt. Ltd., incorporated by Mr. Irani and Mahindra & Mahindra, and any others from using the trademark ‘Yezdi’ or any other mark containing the word ‘Yezdi’.

What is a Trademark?

  • Trademark is a branch of intellectual property rights. Intellectual property rights permit people to maintain ownership rights of their innovative product and creative activity. The intellectual property came to light because of the efforts of human labour, so it is limited by a number of charges for the registration and charges for infringement. Types of intellectual property are Trademarks, Copyright ActPatent Act, and Designs  Act.
  • A trademark includes a name, word, or sign that differentiates goods from the goods of other enterprises. Marketing of goods or services by the procedure becomes much easier with a trademark because recognition of product with the trademark is assured and easier. The owner can prevent the use of his mark or sign by another competitor.

Trademark law in India

  • Before 1940 there was no law on trademarks in India. A number of problems of infringement of registered and unregistered trademark arose which were resolved under Section 54 of the Specific Relief Act, 1877 and registration was adjudicated under the Indian Registration Act,1908. To overcome these difficulties, the Indian Trademark law was enforced in 1940. After the enforcement of the trademark law, demand for protection of trademarks increased as there was major growth in trade and commerce.
  • The Trademark law was replaced with the Trademark and Merchandise Act, 1958. It provides better protection of trademark and prevents misuse or fraudulent use of marks on merchandise. The Act provides registration of the trademark so that the owner of the trademark may get a legal right for its exclusive use.
  • This previous Act got replaced with the Trademark Act, 1999 by the government of India by complying it with TRIPS (Trade-related aspects of intellectual property rights) obligation recommended by the World Trade Organization. The aim of the Trademark Act is to grant protection to the users of trademark and direct the conditions on the property and also provide legal remedies for the implementation of trademark rights.
  • The Trademark Act, 1999 gives the right to the police to arrest in cases of infringement of the trademark. The Act gives a complete definition for the term infringement which is frequently used. In Trademark Act, it provides punishments and penalties for the offenders. It also increases the time duration of registration and also registration of a non-traditional trademark.

Types of Trademarks

Product Mark

  • Product mark is a mark that is used on a good or on a product rather than on a service. This this type of trademark is used to recognize the origin of the product and helps in maintaining the reputation of a business.
  • Trademark applications filed under trademark class 1-34 could be termed as a product mark, as they represent goods.

Service Mark

  • Service mark is similar to the product mark but a service mark is used to represent a service rather than a product. The main purpose of the service mark is that it distinguishes its proprietors from the owners of other services. Trademark applications filed under trademark class 35-45 could be termed as a service mark, as they represent services.

Collective Mark

  • Collective mark is used to inform the public about certain distinguished features of a product or service used to represent a collective. A group of individuals can use this mark so that they are collectively protecting a goods or service. The mark holder can be an association or can be a public institution or can also be a Section 8 Company.
  • In a collective mark, normally the standards of the products are fixed by the regulator owing the mark. Others associated with the collective are held responsible to adhere to certain standards while using the mark in the course of business. A commonly known collective mark in India is the Chartered Accountant designation.

Certification Mark

  • Certification mark is a sign that denotes a products origin, material, quality or other specific details which are issued by the proprietor. The main purpose of certification mark is to bring out the standard of the product and guarantee the product to the customers.
  • A certification mark can also be used to uplift the product’s standard amongst the customers by showing that the product had undergone standard tests to ensure quality. Certification marks are usually seen on packed foods, toys and electronics.

Shape Mark

  • Shape Mark is exclusively used to protect the shape of the product so that the customers find it relatable to a certain manufacturer and prefer to buy the product.
  • The shape of a particular product can be registered once it is recognized to have a noteworthy shape. An example of a shape is the Coca-Cola bottle or Fanta bottle, which have a distinctive shape identifiable with the brand.

Pattern Mark

  • Pattern marks are those products that have specific designed patterns that come out as the distinguishing factor of the product. Patterns which fail to stand out as a remarkable mark is generally rejected since it does not serve any purpose.
  • For a pattern to be registered, it has to show evidence of its uniqueness.

Sound Mark

  • Sound mark is a sound that can be associated with a product or service originating from a certain supplier. To be able to register a sound mark, when people hear the sound, they easily identify that service or product or a shows that the sound represents.
  • Sound logos are called as audio mnemonic and is most likely to appear at the beginning or end of a commercial. The most popular sound mark in India is the tune for IPL.