IAS Gyan

Daily News Analysis


13th September, 2023 Economy

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Picture Courtesy: The Times of India

Context: The Union Transport Minister has recently hinted at a possible tax on diesel vehicles, as part of the government's efforts to reduce pollution and promote cleaner fuels. This comes on top of the existing high tax burden on diesel cars, which are taxed at 28% plus a cess that varies with the engine size, resulting in a total tax of nearly 50%.


  • India has been grappling with severe air pollution and environmental degradation, largely driven by emissions from vehicles, especially those running on diesel. Diesel engines emit significant amounts of harmful pollutants, such as particulate matter (PM), nitrogen oxides (NOx), and sulfur dioxide (SO2), which contribute to poor air quality and adverse health effects.
  • To address these issues and promote a transition to cleaner fuels and technologies, the Indian government has been considering various policy measures, including a potential tax on diesel vehicles.

Impact of a Possible Tax on Diesel Vehicles

Reduced Pollution

  • Taxing diesel vehicles can have a direct and immediate impact on reducing pollution. Diesel engines emit harmful pollutants, including particulate matter (PM), nitrogen oxides (NOx), and sulfur dioxide (SO2), which contribute to poor air quality.
  • By discouraging the use of diesel vehicles, especially in urban areas where pollution levels are often high, this tax can lead to a decrease in these emissions. Improved air quality can have a range of benefits, including reduced respiratory illnesses, lower healthcare costs, and an overall enhancement of the quality of life for residents.

Promotion of Cleaner Fuels

  • The tax on diesel vehicles can act as an incentive for consumers to opt for cleaner alternatives, such as electric vehicles (EVs), compressed natural gas (CNG) vehicles, or hybrid vehicles. This shift toward cleaner fuels and technologies aligns with India's environmental goals and reduces the carbon footprint of the transportation sector.
  • It also stimulates the development and adoption of greener transportation solutions, contributing to the growth of the clean energy sector.

Revenue Generation

  • The tax imposed on diesel vehicles can serve as a source of revenue for the government. The generated funds can be allocated to various initiatives, such as environmental conservation projects, infrastructure development, and investments in sustainable mobility solutions. This revenue can play a crucial role in financing programs aimed at reducing pollution and transitioning to cleaner transportation options.

Behavioural Change

  • Taxes on diesel vehicles can influence consumer behaviour by making them more conscious of the environmental impact of their vehicle choices. As consumers face higher costs associated with diesel vehicles, they may opt for vehicles with lower emissions or explore alternative modes of transportation, such as public transit, carpooling, or cycling. This behavioural change can contribute to a significant reduction in the overall carbon footprint of the transportation sector.

Significances of a tax on diesel vehicles

Environmental Benefits

  • Air Quality Improvement: One of the primary environmental benefits is the improvement of air quality. Diesel vehicles are major contributors to air pollution, emitting pollutants like particulate matter (PM) and nitrogen oxides (NOx). By discouraging the use of these vehicles, the tax can lead to reduced emissions, thereby mitigating air pollution.
  • Climate Change Mitigation: Reducing the consumption of diesel fuel aligns with India's commitment to addressing climate change. Diesel combustion releases carbon dioxide (CO2), a greenhouse gas that contributes to global warming. Promoting cleaner alternatives through taxation is consistent with India's efforts to reduce its carbon footprint and meet climate goals.

Public Health

  • Reduction in Respiratory Illnesses: Improved air quality resulting from reduced diesel vehicle emissions can lead to a significant reduction in respiratory illnesses, such as asthma, bronchitis, and other pulmonary conditions. This, in turn, can enhance the overall health and well-being of the population, particularly in densely populated urban areas.
  • Lower Healthcare Costs: Fewer cases of respiratory illnesses and related health issues can lead to reduced healthcare costs for individuals and the government. Fewer hospitalizations and medical treatments translate into cost savings for healthcare systems.

Energy Security

  • Reduced Oil Dependency: Encouraging the use of cleaner fuels like compressed natural gas (CNG) and electric power can enhance India's energy security. Diesel fuel is often imported, making the country vulnerable to price fluctuations and supply disruptions. Promoting domestically sourced or renewable energy for transportation reduces reliance on imported fossil fuels, contributing to energy self-sufficiency.

India has taken several important steps to address pollution and promote cleaner transportation options

Emission Norms (Bharat Stage VI)

  • India has implemented stringent Bharat Stage VI emission norms for vehicles. These norms prescribe lower limits for emissions of pollutants like particulate matter (PM), nitrogen oxides (NOx), and sulfur dioxide (SO2).
  • The introduction of Bharat Stage VI standards has significantly reduced the permissible levels of emissions from vehicles, including diesel engines. This move has been instrumental in curbing air pollution and improving air quality by ensuring that vehicles are equipped with advanced emission control technologies.

FAME Scheme (Faster Adoption and Manufacturing of Hybrid and Electric Vehicles)

  • The FAME scheme was launched to incentivize the adoption of electric and hybrid vehicles. Under this scheme, the government offers financial incentives and subsidies to consumers, manufacturers, and other stakeholders to promote the adoption of electric and hybrid vehicles.
  • The FAME scheme aims to accelerate the transition to cleaner and more sustainable transportation options by making electric vehicles more affordable and accessible to the public.

CNG Expansion

  • India has made efforts to expand the availability of compressed natural gas (CNG) as a cleaner alternative to diesel and petrol. CNG is considered a cleaner-burning fuel with lower emissions of pollutants like NOx and PM.
  • To promote CNG usage, India has been working on expanding the CNG refuelling infrastructure in major cities and along key transportation corridors. This expansion makes CNG a more accessible and convenient option for consumers and fleet operators, encouraging the adoption of CNG-powered vehicles.


Economic Impact on the Automotive Industry

  • Transition Period: A sudden or steep reduction in diesel vehicle sales can have a significant economic impact on the automotive industry, which has invested heavily in diesel engine technology. To mitigate this, policies should allow for a transition period and provide support for the industry to adapt to changing market demands.
  • Diversification: Encouraging the automotive industry to diversify and invest in cleaner technologies, such as electric and hybrid vehicles, is essential. Government incentives and support for research and development can facilitate this transition.

Infrastructure Challenges

  • EV Charging Infrastructure: Expanding electric vehicle (EV) charging infrastructure across the country is a logistical and financial challenge. To overcome this, the government should collaborate with private sector partners to accelerate the deployment of charging stations. Innovative charging solutions, such as fast-charging networks along highways, can be prioritized.
  • CNG Refueling Stations: Expanding the availability of compressed natural gas (CNG) refuelling stations is essential to make CNG a viable alternative to diesel. Government incentives, partnerships with oil and gas companies, and strategic planning for station locations can help address this challenge.

Consumer Awareness and Acceptance

  • Education Campaigns: Raising public awareness about the benefits of cleaner vehicles and the reasons behind the tax is critical. Information campaigns can help consumers make informed choices and understand the environmental and health advantages of transitioning to cleaner transportation options.
  • Incentives: In addition to taxation, providing incentives such as subsidies, reduced registration fees, and lower road taxes for cleaner vehicles can encourage consumers to choose more environmentally friendly options.


  • Clean energy vehicles, such as electric and hybrid vehicles, often come at a higher upfront cost than their diesel counterparts. Policies should include measures to make these vehicles more affordable, such as tax incentives, subsidies, and financing options.

Availability of Alternatives

  • To encourage the adoption of cleaner fuels and technologies, a robust and reliable supply of alternatives like CNG, electricity, and hydrogen is crucial. Policies should promote investments in the production and distribution of these fuels to ensure their availability.

Enforcement and Monitoring

  • Ensuring that diesel vehicle owners comply with the tax and emissions regulations is essential. Establishing effective enforcement mechanisms and monitoring systems can be challenging but is necessary to achieve the desired emissions reduction goals.

Rural and Commercial Transportation

  • While policies often focus on urban areas, addressing emissions in rural and commercial transportation is equally important. Solutions should consider the unique challenges and requirements of these sectors, which may have limited access to alternative fuels and technologies.

Innovation and Research

  • Continual research and innovation in cleaner vehicle technologies and alternative fuels are essential. Government support for research and development in the automotive sector can lead to breakthroughs in clean energy transportation.

Way forward to effectively promote cleaner transportation

Holistic Policy Approach

  • Develop a comprehensive and well-coordinated policy framework that considers economic, environmental, and social aspects. This framework should be aligned with India's broader sustainability and climate goals.
  • Ensure that policies are consistent and complement each other. Coordination among various government departments and agencies is crucial to avoid conflicting regulations.

Incentives for Cleaner Vehicles

  • Provide financial incentives, such as subsidies, tax credits, or reduced registration fees, to make cleaner vehicles more affordable for consumers.
  • Offer incentives to manufacturers to produce a wider range of cleaner vehicle options and invest in research and development of clean energy technologies.

Investment in Infrastructure

  • Continue investing in EV charging infrastructure, especially in urban areas and along major transportation corridors. Prioritize fast-charging networks for long-distance travel.
  • Expand the availability of compressed natural gas (CNG) refuelling stations in both urban and rural areas to make CNG a viable alternative to diesel.
  • Explore innovative financing models, including public-private partnerships, to accelerate infrastructure development.

Public Awareness

  • Launch comprehensive public awareness campaigns to educate citizens about the environmental and health benefits of cleaner vehicles and the reasons behind the tax on diesel vehicles.
  • Highlight the long-term cost savings associated with cleaner vehicles, including reduced fuel costs and lower maintenance expenses.
  • Promote the adoption of alternative transportation modes such as cycling, walking, carpooling, and public transit.

Monitoring and Enforcement

  • Implement effective monitoring systems to track vehicle emissions and ensure compliance with emission standards.
  • Strengthen enforcement mechanisms to penalize non-compliant vehicles and ensure that the tax on diesel vehicles is applied consistently.
  • Invest in technology for real-time monitoring of emissions, especially for commercial and public transport vehicles.

Research and Development

  • Support research and development efforts in the automotive industry to accelerate the development of cleaner vehicle technologies.
  • Encourage collaboration between research institutions, industry stakeholders, and government agencies to drive innovation in clean energy transportation.

International Collaboration

  • Collaborate with international organizations and other countries to share best practices and leverage global expertise in promoting cleaner transportation.
  • Explore opportunities for technology transfer and knowledge sharing in the clean energy sector.

Review and Adaptation

  • Regularly review and adapt policies and incentives based on evolving technology trends, market dynamics, and environmental priorities.
  • Seek feedback from industry stakeholders, environmental organizations, and the public to ensure that policies remain effective and responsive to changing needs.

By adopting a holistic and forward-thinking approach that encompasses these strategies, India can make significant progress in reducing pollution, improving air quality, and promoting sustainable and clean transportation options for its citizens. Such efforts align with global sustainability goals and contribute to a healthier and more environmentally friendly future.


  • The introduction of a tax on diesel vehicles should be part of a broader strategy to reduce pollution and promote sustainable transportation in India. This strategy should consider the economic implications, infrastructure development, consumer preferences, and industry collaboration to achieve environmental and health objectives while maintaining economic stability.


Q. How does the transport sector contribute to environmental pollution, and what specific pollutants are of concern? What are the notable consequences of this pollution on ecosystems and human health? What challenges hinder effective pollution reduction in this sector, and what strategies can be adopted to promote cleaner and more sustainable transportation in the future?