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Context: The recent statement by the Union Home Minister, who threatened to take stern action against any Kuki militant groups that breach the Suspension of Operations (SoO) agreement, has drawn criticism from some members of the SoO groups. They claimed that they have not violated any of the terms of the pact, which was signed in 2008 with the Centre and the Manipur government to end decades of insurgency in the hill areas of Manipur.


  • The SoO groups, which comprise 24 Kuki insurgent outfits under two umbrella organisations, the United Peoples’ Front (UPF) and the Kuki National Organisation (KNO), have been demanding a separate administration for the Kuki tribal areas in Manipur as part of the peace talks with the Ministry of Home Affairs (MHA).
  • The talks were progressing well until violence erupted on May 3 this year, when clashes broke out between Meitei and Kuki communities over land disputes.

SoO Agreement

  • The SoO agreement was a result of the bloody Kuki-Naga clashes in the 1990s, which claimed hundreds of lives and displaced thousands.
  • The agreement stipulated that the groups would surrender their weapons, join peace talks and stay in designated camps.
  • The groups are also entitled to a monthly stipend of ₹6,000 per cadre. However, the SoO group member alleged that the camps were in poor condition and the stipend was delayed by months. The member said that if the cadres did not step out of the camps to earn their living, they would starve.

Must Read Articles:

Suspension of Operations (SoO) agreement: https://www.iasgyan.in/daily-current-affairs/suspension-of-operations-sos-agreement

Kuki: https://www.iasgyan.in/daily-current-affairs/kuki


Q. How can the Indian government address the longstanding issue of insurgency in Northeast India, which involves multiple separatist militant groups operating in some of the region's states? What are the root causes of the conflict and what are the possible solutions to achieve lasting peace and development? How can the central government engage with the local communities and the insurgent groups to resolve their grievances and demands?