IAS Gyan

Daily News Analysis


25th July, 2023 Geography

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The upcoming election in Spain took place on July 23.

About Spain

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  • Spain is a country located in the southwestern part of Europe, occupying most of the Iberian Peninsula.
  • It is bordered by Portugal to the west, France to the north, and Andorra to the northeast. It also shares maritime borders with Morocco and the British territory of Gibraltar.
  • The country has a diverse landscape, including mountain ranges (like the Pyrenees and Sierra Nevada), plains, and beautiful coastlines along the Mediterranean Sea and the Atlantic Ocean.
  • Spain has a population of over 47 million people, making it the sixth-most populous country in the European Union.

History and Culture

  • Spain has a rich and complex history, with various civilizations having influenced its development over the centuries.
  • The Iberians, Romans, Visigoths, and Moors all played significant roles in shaping Spain's culture and heritage.
  • The Reconquista, a centuries-long process of Christian kingdoms reconquering territories from the Moors, culminated in the formation of modern Spain.
  • Spanish culture is diverse, known for its flamenco music, dance, and bullfighting traditions.

Political System

  • Spain is a parliamentary constitutional monarchy, with a hereditary monarch as the head of state and a democratically elected government headed by the Prime Minister.
  • The current King of Spain is King Felipe VI, who ascended the throne in 2014.

Economy and Industries

  • Spain has a mixed economy, with significant contributions from various sectors, including tourism, manufacturing, agriculture, and services.
  • Tourism plays a crucial role in the Spanish economy, with millions of visitors attracted to the country's historical landmarks, beaches, and vibrant culture.
  • Spain is known for its agricultural products, including olive oil, wine, and citrus fruits. It is also a major producer of high-quality wine.
  • The country has a well-developed manufacturing sector, producing goods like automobiles, textiles, and machinery.

Languages and Regions

  • Spanish, also known as Castilian, is the official language of Spain and is widely spoken throughout the country.
  • Spain is a diverse nation with several autonomous communities, each having its own unique culture, traditions, and, in some cases, regional languages.
  • Some of the well-known autonomous communities include Catalonia, Basque Country, Andalusia, and Galicia.


  • Spanish cuisine is famous worldwide for its delicious dishes and tapas culture.
  • Spain is also known for its cured meats, cheeses, and seafood, along with a wide range of wines and sangria.

Art and Architecture

  • Spain has a rich artistic heritage, with famous artists like Pablo Picasso, Salvador Dalí, and Francisco Goya hailing from the country.
  • Spanish architecture showcases various styles, including Moorish, Gothic, Renaissance, and modernist influences.
  • Iconic landmarks, such as the Sagrada Família in Barcelona and the Alhambra in Granada, attract visitors from around the world.

Festivals and Celebrations

  • Spain hosts numerous vibrant festivals and celebrations throughout the year.
  • The Running of the Bulls in Pamplona during the San Fermín festival and La Tomatina, a massive tomato fight in Buñol, are internationally renowned events.
  • Semana Santa (Holy Week) and Feria de Abril (April Fair) in Seville are also popular and culturally significant celebrations.


Q) Consider the following statements about Cambodia:

  1. Spain is a parliamentary republic with a directly elected president.
  2. Spanish is the only official language spoken in the country.

Select the correct statements using the codes below:

(a)    1 only

(b)    2 only

(c)     Both 1 and 2

(d)    Neither 1 nor 2

Answer: D