IAS Gyan

Daily News Analysis

Report on State of Foundational Literacy and Numeracy in India

20th December, 2021 Society

Figure 3: No Copyright Infringement Intended


  • The Economic Advisory Council to the Prime Minister (EAC-PM) released the report on the State of Foundational Literacy and Numeracy in India.

Need for Foundational learning and literacy (FLN):

  • FLN refers to basic reading, writing, and mathematics skills.
  • It encompasses preschool and elementary education
  • Falling behind in the Foundational Learning years makes children more vulnerable as it negatively impacts their learning outcomes.
  • focus on the foundational learning is the need of the hour to ensure universal access to quality levels of education for all children in pre-primary and primary classes in India.

Index on Foundational Literacy and Numeracy

  • It establishes an understanding of the overall state of Foundational Learning across children aged below ten years in Indian States and Union territories.
  • The Index includes five pillars comprising of41 indicators.
  • The five pillars are :
    • Educational Infrastructure,
    • Access to Education,
    • Basic Health,
    • Learning Outcomes
    • Governance.


  • Access to Education: The performance of Large States such as Rajasthan (25.67), Gujarat (22.28), and Bihar (18.23)is noticeably below average.
  • Governance: States have performed particularly worse in the Governance pillar because over half of the states have a score that is below the national average, i.e., 28.05, the lowest across all pillars.
  • Learning from Others: Some states may serve as role models for others in certain aspects, but they too need to learn from other states while addressing their challenges.