IAS Gyan

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11th December, 2021 History

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    • Recently, C. Rajagopalachari is remembered on his 143rd birth anniversary.



    • Chakravarti Rajagopalachari popularly known as Rajaji or C.R., was an Indian statesman, writer, lawyer, and independence activist.



    During the Freedom Struggle

    • After Mahatma Gandhi, he was the one who joined the Independence movement and became his utmost follower.
    • After 1919 Rajaji participated in Non-Cooperation movement.
    • In 1921 was elected as member of Congress Working Committee and became the General Secretary of the party.
    • During 1922 as a leader of INC session in Gaya he made his first breakthrough and led the entire group with the title ‘No-Changers’ and contested elections for Imperial Legislative Council Party.
    • He issued Agricultural Debt Relief Act, to lessen the load of debt on peasants.
    • He laid several prohibitions on sales tax and banned alcohol but his image was still not positive as he made Hindi compulsory in all educational institutions.
    • Rajaji participated in agitations against Rowlatt Act, joined the Non-Cooperation movement, the Vaikom Satyagraha, and the Civil Disobedience movement.
    • He was imprisoned during the Salt Satyagraha wherein he led the Vedaranyam Salt Satyagraha.
    • In 1939, Rajagopalachari took a step to abolish untouchability and caste prejudice and issued the Madras Temple Entry Authorisation and Indemnity Act.
    • During the Quit India Movement, Rajagopalachari opposed Gandhi


    Independent India

    • When India got freedom, Rajaji became the first Governor of West Bengal but his appointment was opposed by Sarat Chandra Bose (brother of Subhas Chandra Bose).
    • During Rajaji’s tenure his duties were to deal with refugees and create peace and stability, especially during Calcutta riots.
    • He was the last Governor-General of India and the only Indian candidate to hold such an esteemed position.
    • He took over as the chief minister of Madras in April 1952.
    • During his tenure, he actively participated in reforming the education system and bringing changes in the society. He also made Hindi a compulsory language in Tamil schools.
    • He was a social conservative but advocated a free market economy.
    • He wanted to reintroduce the Varna system into society.
    • Rajagopalachari was made Home Affairs Minister after the death of Sardar Patel in 1950.
    • In 1959, he resigned from the Indian National Congress and founded the Swatantra Part along with Murari Vaidya and Minoo Masani.
    • He also signed a resolution that endorsed continuation of English as an official language in India.