IAS Gyan

Daily News Analysis


4th March, 2023 Culture

Disclaimer: Copyright infringement not intended.

Context: 13 th-century Hindu temple ruins have been recently unearthed amidst a shrub jungle northeast of the Durga temple, atop a hillock in the Pushpagiri Kshetram of Vallur mandal in Kadapa district.



  • The hillock, also known as Pushpachala, is famous for the chain of temples dedicated to the pantheon of Hindu gods such as Chennakesava, Umamaheswara, Rudrapada, Vishnupada, Trikooteswara, Vaidyanatha, Subrahmanya, Vighneswara and Durga Devi
  • With the river Penna flowing southwest, this hilly region has over a hundred small and big temples in its vicinity.
  • Pushpagiri is referred to as Hari-Hara Kshetra, as there are a number of temples dedicated to both Shiva and Vishnu.
  • The architectural features of the ruins reveal a style which is contemporary to a temple at Vallur, built by the Kayastha rulers in the 13 thCentury AD.

About Kayasthas:

  • The Kayasthas, including the great Ambadeva, were subordinates to the rulers of the Kakatiya dynasty. 
  • They ruled the region with Vallur as the capital.
  • The founder of this dynasty was Gangaya Sahini.


Q) Which of the following statements is/are incorrect with reference to Pushpachala?

a.    River Penna flows through this hillock.

b.  The architectural features of the temple ruins present here reveal a style which is contemporary to a temple at Vallur.

  1. Only a
  2. Only b
  3. Both a and b
  4. Neither a nor b

Answer: Option 4