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19th February, 2024 Environment


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Picture Courtesy: https://www.cms.int/en/news/official-logo-and-slogan-announced-14th-meeting-conference-parties-convention-migratory-species

Context: The 14th Meeting of the Conference of the Parties to the Convention on the Conservation of Migratory Species of Wild Animals (CMS COP14) concluded successfully with significant progress made in protecting diverse migratory species.


  • The Fourteenth Meeting of the Conference of the Parties to the Convention on the Conservation of Migratory Species of Wild Animals (CMS COP 14) concluded on February 17, 2024, with several key outcomes, including the adoption of listing proposals for 14 migratory species and resolutions for global wildlife conservation.


  • Listing of 14 migratory species: The conference adopted proposals to include 14 migratory species in the CMS Appendices, providing them with enhanced international protection. These species included the Eurasian lynx, Pallas's cat, guanaco, Lahille's bottlenose dolphin, harbour porpoise (Baltic Proper population), Peruvian pelican, Magellanic plover, bearded vulture, Blackchin guitarfish, bull ray, Lusitanian cownose ray, and Gilded and Laulao catfish.



Migration Area

IUCN Status


Eurasian Lynx

Europe & Central Asia

Fragmented across Scandinavia, Carpathians, Russia

Least Concern


Habitat fragmentation, human-wildlife conflict, hunting

Peruvian Pelican

Coastal waters of Chile, Ecuador, Panama

Breeds on islands off Peru, migrates north along Pacific coast

Near Threatened


Bycatch, disease outbreaks, El Niño events impacting prey

Pallas's Cat

Central Asia

Fragmented across grasslands, steppes, mountains in Kazakhstan, Mongolia, Russia, Turkmenistan

Near Threatened

Habitat degradation, illegal trade, prey decline


Arid & semi-arid regions of South America

Ranges from Ecuador & Peru south through Argentina & Chile

Least Concern

Habitat fragmentation, fencing, oil & gas development, illegal hunting

Laulao Catfish

Amazon River basin

Long distances within basin for spawning & feeding

Least Concern




Overfishing, habitat degradation from dams & deforestation

Balkan Lynx

Balkan Peninsula

Fragmented populations in North Macedonia, Albania, Greece

Critically Endangered



Habitat loss, poaching, roadkill

Lahille's Bottlenose Dolphin

Coastal waters of Argentina, Brazil, Uruguay

Primarily coastal, some movement between countries


Bycatch, habitat degradation, pollution

Harbour Porpoise

Coastal waters of Europe, North America, Asia (focus on "Baltic Proper" population)

Varies by region, some long-distance migrations

Least Concern


Bycatch, underwater noise pollution, habitat degradation

Magellanic Plover

Southern South America

Breeds in Argentina & Chile, migrates north to Peru & Brazil

Near Threatened


Habitat loss, human disturbance, predation

Bearded Vulture

Mountain ranges in Southern Europe & Africa

Breeds in mountains, long-distance migrations for food

Near  Threatened

Poisoning, power line collisions, food scarcity

Blackchin Guitarfish

Tropical & subtropical waters worldwide

Primarily coastal, some movement between regions

Critically Endangered

Bycatch, habitat degradation

Bull Ray

Tropical & subtropical waters worldwide

Coastal & pelagic, some movement between regions

Critically Endangered

Bycatch, habitat degradation

Lusitanian Cownose Ray

Eastern Atlantic Ocean & Mediterranean Sea

Coastal & pelagic, some movement between regions

Critically Endangered


Bycatch, habitat degradation, pollution

Gilded Catfish

Amazon & Orinoco River basins

Long distances within basins for spawning & feeding


Overfishing, habitat degradation from dams & deforestation


  • Increased international cooperation: Listing species in the CMS Appendices encourages and facilitates cooperative conservation efforts among range states, promoting coordinated action across borders.
  • Enhanced protection: Inclusion in the Appendices triggers specific legal obligations for countries to implement conservation measures for the listed species and their habitats.
  • Improved research and monitoring: The COP encourages parties to conduct research and monitor populations to assess the effectiveness of conservation strategies and adapt them as needed.
  • Potential for positive impact: By addressing threats and promoting effective conservation efforts, COP14 outcomes could contribute to the positive impact on the sustainability of migratory species and the overall health of ecosystems.


  • The outcomes of CMS COP14 underscore global efforts to protect and conserve migratory species facing various threats. The adoption of listing proposals reflects a commitment to international collaboration and conservation measures to ensure the survival and well-being of these species in their migratory journeys.

Must Read Articles:

CMS COP14: https://www.iasgyan.in/daily-current-affairs/cms-cop14


Q. Climate change and other global environmental challenges introduce significant uncertainties into ecosystem management. How to develop adaptive and flexible conservation strategies that are resilient to future changes and incorporate new scientific understanding as it emerges?

Answer Structure:

Start with a brief introduction that defines the key terms and concepts, such as climate change, ecosystem management, adaptive and flexible conservation strategies, resilience, and scientific understanding.

Provide some examples of the uncertainties and challenges posed by climate change and other environmental factors on ecosystem management, such as biodiversity loss, habitat degradation, invasive species, natural disasters, etc.

Explain why adaptive and flexible conservation strategies are needed to cope with these uncertainties and challenges, and how they differ from conventional or rigid conservation approaches. Mention some of the principles and features of adaptive and flexible conservation, such as learning by doing, stakeholder participation, adaptive governance, scenario planning, etc.

Discuss how adaptive and flexible conservation strategies can enhance the resilience of ecosystems and human well-being in the face of future changes and uncertainties. Provide some evidence or case studies of successful or promising examples of adaptive and flexible conservation in different contexts or regions.

Conclude with a summary of the main points and some recommendations or suggestions for improving or implementing adaptive and flexible conservation strategies in India or globally.