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Daily News Analysis


17th July, 2023 Geography

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A groundbreaking discovery made by Norge Mining, a government organization in Norway.


  • Norge Mining in Norway makes groundbreaking discoveries of extensive phosphate deposits.
  • Phosphate rocks can be utilized to power electric vehicles.

Phosphate Deposits in Norway

  • Norge Mining estimates up to 70 billion tonnes of phosphorus reserves in Norway.
  • Sufficient to meet electric power demand for the next half-century.
  • China and Egypt also have substantial reserves of 3.2 billion and 2.8 billion tonnes, respectively (according to USGS).

Phosphorus as an Exhaustible Resource

  • Phosphorus is predominantly consumed by the agriculture sector for fertilizer production.
  • Limited availability for other industries.
  • Over reliance on phosphorus for farming raises concerns for alternative sectors.
  • Potential hindrance to the growth of specific crops.

Environmental Concerns with Phosphate Fertilizers:

  • Runoff from phosphate fertilizers contributes to algae blooms in rivers.
  • Algae blooms pose a threat to freshwater ecosystems.

Role of Phosphorus in Various Industries

  • Phosphorus is crucial in the production of solar panels, computer chips, and lithium-iron phosphate batteries.
  • Global economy is heavily dependent on 50 million tonnes of phosphorus annually.
  • Extraction and refinement processes raise concerns about pollution.

Norge Mining's Commitment to Environmental Mitigation

  • Norge Mining pledges to employ carbon capture technology in phosphorus extraction.
  • Aims to mitigate carbon emissions associated with the process.

Valuable Materials Found in Phosphate Deposits

  • Phosphate deposits in Norway also contain vanadium and titanium.
  • Vanadium and titanium are classified as critical raw materials by the EU due to limited availability.

About Norway

  • Norway is a Nordic country located in Northern Europe on the western part of the Scandinavian Peninsula.
  • It shares borders with Sweden, Finland, and Russia, and has coastlines along the North Atlantic Ocean and the Barents Sea.
  • Known for its stunning fjords, mountains, and rugged coastline, Norway offers diverse natural landscapes.

Political and Administrative Structure

  • Norway is a constitutional monarchy with a parliamentary system of government.
  • The King of Norway serves as the ceremonial head of state, while the Prime Minister is the head of government.
  • The country is divided into 11 administrative regions, known as counties, which are further divided into municipalities.

Economy and Industries

  • Norway has a mixed economy with a combination of free market activity and strong government intervention.
  • It is known for its wealth derived from natural resources, particularly oil and gas.
  • Other important sectors include shipping, aquaculture, hydropower, renewable energy, and technology.
  • Norway's economy is characterized by a high standard of living, low unemployment rates, and a strong welfare system.

Natural Resources

  • Norway is rich in natural resources, including oil, gas, minerals, fish, forests, and hydropower.
  • The discovery of significant oil and gas reserves in the North Sea in the 1960s has greatly contributed to Norway's economic growth.

Renewable Energy and Environmental Stewardship

  • Norway is a global leader in renewable energy production, particularly hydropower.
  • The country has an abundance of rivers and waterfalls, which are harnessed to generate clean and sustainable electricity.
  • Norway has also made commitments to reduce greenhouse gas emissions and combat climate change.

Education and Innovation

  • Norway places a strong emphasis on education and has a well-developed educational system.
  • The country has several renowned universities and research institutions known for their contributions to various fields.
  • Innovation and technology play a vital role in Norway's economic development, with a focus on sectors like renewable energy, biotechnology, and maritime industries.

Social Welfare and Quality of Life

  • Norway consistently ranks among the countries with the highest quality of life globally.
  • The country has a comprehensive social welfare system that provides universal healthcare, education, and social security benefits to its citizens.
  • Norway also boasts low crime rates, a high level of gender equality, and a strong emphasis on work-life balance.

Cultural Heritage and Tourism

  • Norway has a rich cultural heritage, with deep-rooted traditions, folklore, and historical landmarks.
  • The country is known for its Viking history, Sami indigenous culture, and distinctive architectural styles.
  • Tourism is a significant industry in Norway, attracting visitors with its natural beauty, outdoor activities, and cultural experiences.


Q) Consider the following statements regarding phosphate deposits:

  1. Sedimentary marine phosphorite deposits are typically found in cold, deep marine environments.
  2. Phosphate deposits are primarily formed through the accumulation of volcanic ash.

Select the correct statements using the code below:

(a)1 only

(b)2 only

(c) Both 1 and 2

(d) Neither 1 nor 2

Answer: D