IAS Gyan

Daily News Analysis


26th July, 2023 Environment

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  • The Goa Bench of the Bombay High Court directed the Government of Goa to notify the 208 sq. km. Mhadei Wildlife Sanctuary (WLS) and its surrounding areas as a tiger reserve, and issue a notification within three months.



  • Mhadei Wildlife Sanctuary is located in the Western Ghats of India, covering parts of the states of Goa, Karnataka, and Maharashtra.
  • It was declared a wildlife sanctuary in 1999 to protect the biodiversity and ecological integrity of the region.

Geographical and Ecological Significance

  • Spread over an area of approximately 208.5 square kilometers, Mhadei WLS is known for its rich biodiversity and unique ecosystems.
  • The sanctuary is situated in the Sahyadri mountain range, a UNESCO World Heritage Site, making it ecologically significant.
  • It is characterized by dense evergreen and semi-evergreen forests, deciduous forests, and grasslands, providing habitat to a wide variety of flora and fauna.

Flora and Fauna

  • The sanctuary is home to a diverse range of plant species, including rare medicinal plants and endemic flora.
  • It harbors a variety of wildlife, including mammals like Indian gaur (bison), sambar deer, barking deer, leopards, and wild boars.
  • Several species of reptiles, amphibians, and avifauna are also found here, contributing to its ecological richness.

Conservation Significance

  • Mhadei WLS is crucial for the conservation of endangered species and for protecting biodiversity hotspots in the Western Ghats.
  • It acts as a vital corridor for the movement of wildlife between different forested areas, ensuring genetic exchange and ecological balance.

Interstate Dispute

  • One of the significant issues related to Mhadei WLS is the ongoing dispute between the states of Goa and Karnataka over the diversion of the Mhadei river (also known as Mandovi) water.
  • Goa has raised concerns about the potential adverse impact on the sanctuary's ecology and wildlife due to proposed water diversion projects in Karnataka.


Mhadei Wildlife Sanctuary plays a crucial role in preserving the natural heritage of the Western Ghats and supporting a wide range of plant and animal species. Protecting this sanctuary from various threats and resolving interstate disputes is essential to ensure its long-term conservation and ecological integrity.


Q. Which of the following statements are true regarding Mhadei Wildlife Sanctuary?

1.      Mhadei Wildlife Sanctuary is located in the Eastern Ghats of India.

2.      It is spread over an area of approximately 100 square kilometers.

3.      The sanctuary was declared a wildlife sanctuary in 1999.

4.      Mhadei WLS is a UNESCO World Heritage Site.

Select the correct option:

A.      1 and 3 only

B.      2 and 4 only

C.      3 only

D.      1 and 2 only

Answer: A