IAS Gyan

Daily News Analysis


1st August, 2023 Geography


A meeting that took place between a high-level parliamentary delegation from Malawi and the President of India, Smt. Droupadi Murmu, at Rashtrapati Bhavan on July 31, 2023.


  • India and Malawi have a long-standing history of cordial and friendly relations.
  • Both countries share common faith in democratic values and pluralism, which makes them natural partners.

Economic Partnership

  • India is one of the largest trade and private investment partners of Malawi.
  • Malawian nationals prefer India as a destination for health and education.

Development Partnership Programme

  • India has a strong development partnership programme with Malawi.
  • Numerous projects have been implemented in Malawi, focusing on areas such as infrastructure, health, water resources, capacity building, and education.

High-Level Delegation Visit

  • A Parliamentary Delegation from Malawi, led by Rt. Hon. Catherine Gotani Hara, Speaker of Malawi National Assembly, visited India.
  • The delegation called on the President of India, Smt. Droupadi Murmu, at Rashtrapati Bhavan on July 31, 2023.
  • President Murmu emphasized the potential for further strengthening the ties between the two nations.

Prospects for Greater Depth in Ties

  • Both India and Malawi see immense scope for enhancing their bilateral relationship.
  • There is a mutual desire to add greater depth and substance to the existing ties.

Key Focus Areas of Partnership

  • Trade and Investment: India serves as a major trade and investment partner for Malawi, fostering economic growth in both countries.
  • Healthcare and Education: Malawian nationals prefer India for quality healthcare and educational opportunities.
  • Development Projects: India's development partnership program supports critical projects in Malawi, focusing on key sectors like infrastructure, health, water resources, capacity building, and education.

About Malawi

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  • Malawi is a landlocked country situated in southeastern Africa.
  • It shares borders with Zambia to the northwest, Tanzania to the northeast, and Mozambique to the east, south, and southwest.
  • The capital city of Malawi is

Geography and Environment

  • Malawi is known as the "Warm Heart of Africa" due to the friendly and hospitable nature of its people.
  • It is characterized by its diverse landscapes, including plateaus, mountains, and large freshwater bodies like Lake Malawi, one of Africa's Great Lakes.
  • Lake Malawi is a major tourist attraction and is home to unique fish species found nowhere else in the world.

Demographics and Culture

  • The population of Malawi is predominantly of Bantu origin, with Chewa being the largest ethnic group.
  • The official languages are English and Chichewa (Chewa), with various regional languages also spoken.
  • Malawi has a rich cultural heritage, with vibrant music, dance, and art forms reflecting the country's traditions and history.


  • Malawi's economy is primarily based on agriculture, with the majority of the population engaged in subsistence farming.
  • The main agricultural products include tobacco, tea, sugarcane, coffee, and maize.
  • The country has faced challenges with food security and poverty, but efforts are being made to diversify the economy and improve livelihoods.

Health and Education

  • Malawi has made progress in improving healthcare and education in recent years.
  • The government has focused on increasing access to medical services, reducing infant mortality, and combating infectious diseases like HIV/AIDS, malaria, and tuberculosis.
  • Education is a priority, with efforts to enhance access to quality schooling and literacy rates.

Politics and Governance

  • Malawi is a multi-party democracy, and its political system is based on a presidential republic.
  • The President of Malawi is both the head of state and government.
  • The National Assembly is the country's legislative body, and members are elected through a mix of single-member constituencies and proportional representation.

Development Partnerships

  • Malawi has established strong partnerships with various countries and international organizations to foster economic and social development.
  • India, in particular, has been a significant development partner for Malawi, supporting various projects in critical sectors like infrastructure, health, water resources, capacity building, and education.

Challenges and Opportunities

  • Malawi faces challenges related to poverty, limited access to healthcare and education, environmental sustainability, and economic diversification.
  • However, the country also possesses vast potential for growth, especially in sectors like tourism, renewable energy, and agriculture.
  • Efforts are being made to harness these opportunities and address the challenges for the overall development of the nation.


Q) Which of the following statements about Malawi is correct?

(1) Malawi is a landlocked country in West Africa.

(2) The official language of Malawi is Swahili.

(3) Lake Malawi is one of Africa's Great Lakes and is known for its unique fish species.

(4) Malawi's economy is primarily based on oil and natural gas exports.

Select the correct answer using the codes below:

(a)    1 and 2 only

(b)   3 only

(c)    3 and 4 only

(d)   2 and 3 only

Answer: B