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Daily News Analysis


7th October, 2022 Social Issues

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In News

  • Prime Minister of India has lauded that India has registered a decline in female infant mortality rate.
    • The data highlighted a decline in Infant Mortality Rate (IMR) from 30 per 1000 live births in 2019 to 28 per 1000 live births in 2020.
  • According to the Sample Registration System Statistical Report 2020, the country's female Infant Mortality Rate (IMR) dropped to the same level as males.
    • However, in 16 states, IMR remained higher for female babies than males but the gap had reduced since 2011.
  • The Prime Minister highlighted that efforts made towards Beti Bachao Beti Padhao resulted in improved numbers across all parameters.

Related News

  • As per the data released by the Sample Registration System (SRS), India has achieved a milestone in the deduction of child mortality rates, and will soon achieve the Sustainable Development Goals (SDG) targets by 2030.
    • The Sample Registration System (SRS) Statistical Report, 2020 released by the Registrar General of India (RGI).
    • The Registrar General of India was established in 1961 under the Ministry of Home Affairs, for conducting and analyzing the results of the demographic surveys of India including the Census of India and the Linguistic Survey of India.
  • The data highlighted a decline in the under 5 Child Mortality Rate (U5MR) from 35 per 1000 live births in 2019 to 32 per 1000 live births in 2020.
    • U5MR for females are higher (33) than males (31).
    • The highest decline of U5MR is observed in Uttar Pradesh (5 points) and Karnataka (5 points)
    • Child mortality is the mortality of children under the age of 5 years. It is expressed in terms of per 1,000 live births. It includes neonatal mortality and infant mortality.
  • A decline in Infant Mortality Rate (IMR) from 30 per 1000 live births in 2019 to 28 per 1000 live births in 2020.
    • No gender difference has been observed in 2020 (Male -28, Female - 28).
    • Infant mortality is the death of children before reaching the age of 1 year. This is measured by the infant mortality rate (IMR), which shows the deaths of children under one year of age per 1000 live births.
  • A drop in the Neonatal Mortality Rate from 22 per 1000 live births in 2019 to 20 per 1000 live births in 2020.
    • Neonatal deaths (deaths among live births during the first 28 days of life). This is calculated based on the number of deaths during the first 28 days of life per 1000 live births.


Beti Bachao Beti Padhao (BBBP) programme

  • Background: The Census of 2011 reflects a declining trend in the Child Sex Ratio (CSR) between 0-6 years with an all-time low at 918. A decline in CSR reflects:
    • Pre-birth discrimination through gender-biased sex selection.
    • Post-birth discrimination against girls (in form of their health, nutrition, and educational needs).
  • In 2015, the Union Government has launched the Beti Bachao Beti Padhao (BBBP) programme.
  • It is a tri-ministerial effort of;
    • Ministry of Women and Child Development.
    • Ministry of Health & Family Welfare.
    • Ministry of Education (Earlier Ministry of Human Resource Development).
  • Since 2021 the Ministry of Skill Development and Entrepreneurship and the Ministry of Minority Affairs have also been added as partners.
  • The programme only focuses on awareness campaigns and no provision of individual cash transfers by the Government.
  • The scheme is now subsumed into Mission Shakti.
  • Objectives of the Scheme;
    • Prevent gender-biased sex selective elimination.
    • Ensure the survival and protection of the girl child.
    • Ensure the education and participation of the girl child.
    • Increase girls' participation in the fields of sports.
  • The scheme aims to achieve:
    • Improvement in the Sex Ratio at Birth (SRB) by 2 points every year,
    • Improvement in the percentage of institutional deliveries or sustained at the rate of 95% or above.
    • 1% increase in enrolment at the secondary education level and skilling of girls/women per year.
    • To check the dropout rate among girls at secondary and higher secondary levels.
    • Raising awareness about safe menstrual hygiene management (MHM)