IAS Gyan

Daily News Analysis


1st July, 2023 International Relations


  • Prime Minister Narendra Modi and President Vladimir Putin had a telephone conversation which focused on bilateral cooperation and regional/global issues.
  • Both leaders reviewed the progress made in bilateral cooperation.


Exchange of Views and Updates

  • Prime Minister Modi and President Putin exchanged views on regional and global issues. The specific issues discussed were not mentioned.
  • President Putin informed Prime Minister Modi about recent developments in Russia. Details of these developments were not provided.

Situation in Ukraine

  • During the conversation, the situation in Ukraine was discussed.
  • Prime Minister Modi reiterated his call for dialogue and diplomacy in addressing the situation.

Commitment to Strengthen Special and Privileged Strategic Partnership

  • Both leaders agreed to remain in touch.
  • They expressed their commitment to continue efforts in strengthening the Special and Privileged Strategic Partnership between India and Russia.

About Russia

  • Russia is a vast country located in Eastern Europe and Northern Asia.
  • It is the largest country in the world, spanning across eleven time zones.

Geographical Features

  • Russia shares borders with multiple countries, including China, Kazakhstan, Belarus, Ukraine, and Finland.
  • It has diverse geographical features, including the Ural Mountains, Siberian plains, and the vast Siberian taiga.
  • Russia is also home to several major rivers, such as the Volga, Lena, and Amur.

Historical Significance

  • Russia has a rich history that spans over a thousand years.
  • It was ruled by tsars until the Russian Revolution in 1917, which led to the establishment of the Soviet Union.
  • The Soviet Union played a significant role in global politics during the Cold War era.

Political System

  • Russia is a federal semi-presidential republic.
  • The President of Russia is the head of state, while the Prime Minister is the head of government.
  • The political landscape is dominated by the ruling party, United Russia.

Economy and Industries

  • Russia has a mixed economy with a diverse range of industries.
  • It is one of the world's leading producers of natural resources, including oil, gas, and minerals.
  • Other major industries include manufacturing, aerospace, defense, and technology.

Cultural Heritage

  • Russian culture is renowned for its literature, arts, ballet, classical music, and architecture.
  • Prominent Russian authors such as Leo Tolstoy and Fyodor Dostoevsky have made significant contributions to world literature.
  • The country is also known for its iconic landmarks, such as the Red Square and the Hermitage Museum in St. Petersburg.

International Relations

  • Russia is an influential player in global affairs and holds a permanent seat on the United Nations Security Council.
  • It has maintained historical alliances with countries like India, and their relationship is based on a Special and Privileged Strategic Partnership.
  • Russia's foreign policy priorities include safeguarding its national interests and maintaining geopolitical influence.

Challenges and Opportunities

  • Russia faces various challenges, including economic diversification, demographic changes, and geopolitical tensions.
  • However, it also has significant opportunities for growth, particularly in areas such as technology, innovation, and energy sectors.

About India-Russia Relations

  • The diplomatic relationship between India and Russia is characterized by a long-standing history of friendship and cooperation.
  • The foundation of the bilateral ties between the two countries was laid during the Cold War era and has evolved into a Special and Privileged Strategic Partnership.

Historical Background

  • India and Russia have enjoyed close ties since the Soviet era.
  • The Indo-Soviet Treaty of Peace, Friendship, and Cooperation signed in 1971 formed the basis for the bilateral relationship.
  • The Soviet Union supported India during significant events such as the Indo-Pak wars and played a crucial role in India's defense and development.

Defense and Security Cooperation

  • Defense cooperation is a cornerstone of the India-Russia relationship.
  • Russia has been a key supplier of defense equipment to India, including aircraft, tanks, submarines, and missiles.
  • The two countries engage in joint military exercises and share intelligence and counterterrorism cooperation.

Economic Collaboration

  • Economic cooperation between India and Russia covers various sectors, including energy, pharmaceuticals, infrastructure, and information technology.
  • Bilateral trade has been growing steadily, with both countries aiming to reach a target of $30 billion by 2025.
  • Investment opportunities and joint ventures are actively pursued to enhance economic ties.

Space and Nuclear Cooperation

  • India and Russia have a history of collaboration in the space sector.
  • The Indian Space Research Organisation (ISRO) has launched several satellites using Russian launch vehicles.
  • Russia has also been a reliable partner in India's nuclear energy program, including the construction of nuclear power plants.

Cultural Exchanges and People-to-People Contacts

  • Cultural exchanges play an important role in strengthening India-Russia ties.
  • Both countries have cultural centers that promote language, arts, and cultural activities.
  • Tourism between India and Russia has been increasing, allowing people-to-people contacts and fostering greater understanding.

International Cooperation

  • India and Russia cooperate closely on various global forums, including the United Nations, BRICS, and the Shanghai Cooperation Organization.
  • Both countries share similar views on major international issues, such as multilateralism, counterterrorism, and the need for a multipolar world order.

Recent Developments and Future Prospects

  • The Special and Privileged Strategic Partnership has witnessed further strengthening in recent years with regular high-level visits and exchanges.
  • Areas of future cooperation include high technology, innovation, pharmaceuticals, and joint manufacturing.
  • Efforts are being made to diversify the bilateral relationship beyond defense and energy sectors.


Q) Analyze how the Russia Ukraine conflict has influenced India's stance and engagement with both countries. (150 words)