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India Nepal Border Dispute

India Nepal Border Dispute

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  • Nepal has introduced a new Rs 100 currency note that features disputed Indian territories of Limpiyadhura, Lipulekh, and Kalapani.


  • Limpiyadhura, Lipulekh, and Kalapani are part of a longstanding border dispute between India and Nepal.
  • Indians criticised Nepal's decision, calling it "unilateral, untenable, and artificial."
  • India emphasised that such actions do not change the reality of the situation and urged Nepal to respect the existing understanding on border issues.
  • The inclusion of disputed territories on Nepal's currency note has regional implications, potentially impacting India-Nepal relations and regional stability.

India- Nepal Border Dispute

Kalapani Dispute:

●Both India and Nepal claim sovereignty over this area, which is strategically important due to its proximity to the China-India-Nepal tri-junction.

●India maintains control over the region, which Nepal disputes, arguing that the river to the west of Kalapani should be the border, while India asserts the river to the east as the border.

Lipulekh Pass:

●Lipulekh Pass is another area of dispute. It lies near the tri-junction of India, Nepal, and China, and serves as a crucial trade route for Indian pilgrims traveling to Kailash Mansarovar in Tibet.

●Nepal claims that the pass lies within its territory, while India argues that it is part of the Indian state of Uttarakhand.

Historical Context of India Nepal Border Dispute:

●The roots of these disputes can be traced back to the Sugauli Treaty of 1815, which was signed between the British East India Company and the Kingdom of Nepal after the Anglo-Nepalese War.

●The treaty determined the boundaries between Nepal and British India, but there have been differing interpretations and claims regarding certain areas.

Border Disputes Escalation:

●Tensions escalated in 2019 when India released new political maps after the reorganization of the state of Jammu and Kashmir, showing the disputed territories as part of Indian territory.

●This move triggered strong reactions from Nepal, which claimed that it violated the understanding between the two countries to resolve border issues through dialogue.

Call for Diplomatic Dialogue:

  • Despite the tensions caused by the currency note issue, diplomatic channels remain open for dialogue and resolution.
  • Both countries are urged to engage constructively to address border disputes and maintain bilateral relations.

Ways forward:

  • Bilateral Dialogue: Both India and Nepal should prioritize sustained and constructive bilateral dialogue to address the border disputes. Regular meetings at various levels, including between heads of state, foreign ministers, and boundary experts, can help in fostering mutual understanding and exploring possible solutions.
  • Reference to Historical Documents: Both countries can refer to historical documents, treaties, and maps to clarify their respective claims and understandings regarding the border. An impartial examination of historical records can provide valuable insights into the origins of the disputes and help in finding common ground.
  • Joint Survey and Mapping: Conducting a joint survey and mapping exercise with the involvement of experts from both countries can help in accurately delineating the border. Utilizing modern technologies such as GPS, satellite imagery, and Geographic Information Systems (GIS) can ensure precision and transparency in demarcating the boundary.
  • Confidence-Building Measures: Implementing confidence-building measures along the border can help in reducing tensions and creating a conducive environment for dialogue. This could include measures such as joint border patrols, cultural exchanges, and economic cooperation projects aimed at fostering goodwill and trust between the two countries.
  • Long-Term Vision: India and Nepal should adopt a long-term vision for their bilateral relations, emphasizing mutual respect, trust, and cooperation. Addressing the border disputes is just one aspect of their relationship, and both countries should work towards building comprehensive ties that benefit their peoples and promote regional stability.
  • Public Diplomacy and Outreach: Engaging with the public through educational initiatives, media outreach, and people-to-people exchanges can help in generating broader support for resolving the border disputes. Creating awareness about the historical context, cultural ties, and shared interests between India and Nepal can promote a conducive atmosphere for negotiations.

India-Nepal Bilateral Disputes:





Q) Match the following border disputes of India with the respective countries:

  1. India-Nepal Border Dispute
  2. India-China Border Dispute
  3. India-Pakistan Border Dispute
  4. India-MyanmarBangladesh Border Dispute

A) Kalapani and Lipulekh Pass

B) McMahon Line

C) Line of Control (LoC) in Kashmir

D) New Moore





Answer: A


India-Nepal Border Dispute (Kalapani and Lipulekh Pass):

The India-Nepal border dispute revolves around the Kalapani region and the Lipulekh Pass. Nepal claims that the river to the west of Kalapani should be the border, while India maintains control over the region based on its assertion of the eastern river as the border. The dispute has historical roots and strategic significance due to its proximity to the China-India-Nepal tri-junction.

India-China Border Dispute (McMahon Line):

The India-China border dispute involves various regions, including Arunachal Pradesh (referred to as South Tibet by China) and areas along the Line of Actual Control (LAC).

The McMahon Line, drawn by the British colonial government in the early 20th century, serves as the de facto boundary between India and China in the eastern sector. However, China disputes its validity, leading to tensions and occasional border tensions.

India-Pakistan Border Dispute (Line of Control in Kashmir):

The India-Pakistan border dispute primarily concerns the region of Kashmir. The Line of Control (LoC) serves as the de facto boundary between the Indian-administered and Pakistani-administered parts of Kashmir.

Both countries claim the entire region and have fought several wars and conflicts over it. The dispute remains one of the most contentious issues in South Asia, with ongoing diplomatic efforts to find a resolution.

India-Myanmar Border Dispute (Border Security Fence in Manipur):

The India-Myanmar border dispute primarily concerns the alignment of the boundary in certain areas, particularly in the northeastern state of Manipur. In recent years, India has constructed a border security fence along parts of the border to curb illegal activities and enhance security. However, Myanmar has raised objections to the fence due to concerns about territorial sovereignty and cross-border interactions. Efforts are underway to address these concerns through diplomatic channels.