IAS Gyan

Daily News Analysis


15th March, 2024 International News


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Picture Courtesy: https://twitter.com/UNGeneva/status/1768375305415045395

Context: According to the 2023 Human Development Report, titled "Breaking the Gridlock: Reimagining Cooperation in a Polarised World," India's Human Development Index (HDI) rating has improved.

Key Highlights of the Report

  • HDI Improvement: India's HDI value improved from 0.633 in 2021 to 0.644 in 2022, placing it in the medium human development category. This represents an improvement in India's position over previous years.
  • Indicators for Improvement: India indicated improvements in all HDI indicators, including life expectancy, education, and Gross National Income (GNI) per capita. Life expectancy climbed from 67.2 to 67.7 years, expected years of schooling reached 12.6, mean years of schooling increased to 6.57, and Gross national income (GNI) per capita increased from $6,542 to $6,951.
  • Gender Inequality Progression: India made progress in reducing gender inequality, with a Gender Inequality Index (GII) value of 0.437, higher than the worldwide and South Asian averages. However, India still has one of the largest gender gaps in the labour force participation rate, with a 47.8% difference between women (28.3%) and men (76.1%).
  • Global Inequality Trends: The report reveals growing worldwide inequities, with the gap between the richest and poorest countries growing since 2020. The growth of India is part of a larger global trend in which unequal development is leaving the poorest behind and increasing inequality.
  • Global Economic Concentration and Inequality: The report highlights the compounding effect of global inequities, stressing that over 40% of world trade in products is concentrated in three or fewer countries.
    • In 2021, the market capitalization of the three top technology corporations surpassed the GDP of more than 90% of countries, reflecting economic concentration.
  • Comparison and Outlook: Even though India has advanced significantly, it still trails behind China, Bangladesh, Bhutan, and Sri Lanka. Despite continuous post-pandemic recovery efforts, the most recent assessment highlights the worldwide concerns of inequality, polarisation, and geopolitical tensions.

Human Development Report (HDR)

●The Human Development Report (HDR) is an annual publication by the United Nations Development Programme (UNDP) that aims to place people at the centre of the development process.                                                                                                                                                  

●It was first launched in 1990 by Mahbub ul Haq, a Pakistani economist, and Amartya Sen, an Indian Nobel laureate.                                                                                                                                                

●The report provides a comprehensive analysis of human development worldwide, focusing on issues such as health, education, and living standards.

●The report highlights the need to evaluate progress beyond economic measures such as GDP, underlining the role of human development in expanding people's choices and increasing their quality of life.


  • India's progress in Human development, including increases in life expectancy, education, and gender equality, indicates its dedication to inclusive growth and development. However, there is still potential for improvement, especially in terms of gender gaps in labour force participation rates and increased social infrastructure investment.


Q. Which organisation publishes the Human Development Report?

A) World Health Organization (WHO)

B) United Nations Development Programme (UNDP)

C) International Monetary Fund (IMF)

D) World Bank

Answer: B