IAS Gyan

Daily News Analysis


26th September, 2023 Science and Technology

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  • Union Minister of Petroleum & Natural Gas Hardeep Singh Puri launched India's first green hydrogen fuel cell bus at Kartavya Path in Delhi.
  • The initiative is part of Indian Oil's efforts to conduct operational trials of 15 fuel cell buses powered by green hydrogen on designated routes in Delhi, Haryana, and Uttar Pradesh. 


  • Green hydrogen fuel cells represent a cutting-edge and environmentally sustainable technology that holds great promise in addressing global energy and environmental challenges.

What is Green Hydrogen?

  • Green hydrogen is hydrogen gas (H2) produced through a process called electrolysis, using renewable energy sources such as wind, solar, or hydropower.
  • Unlike "grey" or "blue" hydrogen, which are produced from natural gas and emit carbon dioxide (CO2) during production, green hydrogen is considered environmentally friendly and carbon-neutral.

Fuel Cells

  • Fuel cells are electrochemical devices that convert the chemical energy stored in hydrogen and oxygen into electrical energy, with water as the only byproduct.
  • They are highly efficient and have various applications, making them a crucial component of the green hydrogen ecosystem.

Production of Green Hydrogen

  • Electrolysis: Green hydrogen is primarily produced through water electrolysis. This process involves passing an electric current through water to split it into hydrogen and oxygen gases. Two common types of electrolyzers are proton exchange membrane (PEM) and alkaline electrolyzers.
  • Renewable Energy Sources: To ensure the "green" status of hydrogen, it is crucial to power the electrolysis process with renewable energy sources, such as wind, solar, or hydropower. This ensures that no carbon emissions are associated with the hydrogen production process.


Green hydrogen fuel cells have a wide range of applications:

  • Transportation: Hydrogen fuel cells can power vehicles, including cars, trucks, buses, and trains, providing a clean alternative to traditional internal combustion engines.
  • Energy Storage: Green hydrogen can store excess energy from renewable sources, enabling grid stability and energy supply during periods of high demand.
  • Industrial Processes: Hydrogen is used in various industrial applications, including refining, chemicals, and steel production, and can replace grey hydrogen in these processes to reduce carbon emissions.
  • Power Generation: Fuel cells can be used for distributed power generation and backup power in remote areas.
  • Aerospace: Hydrogen fuel cells are being explored for applications in aircraft and spacecraft due to their high energy density.


  • Clean Energy: Green hydrogen is produced without emitting greenhouse gases, making it a clean energy source.
  • High Energy Density: Hydrogen has a high energy density, making it suitable for long-duration energy storage.
  • Versatility: Hydrogen can be used in various sectors, from transportation to industry, making it a versatile energy carrier.
  • Reduced Dependence on Fossil Fuels: Green hydrogen reduces reliance on fossil fuels and contributes to energy diversification.


  • Cost: Hydrogen production through electrolysis can be expensive, particularly when renewable energy sources are not readily available.
  • Storage and Transportation: Hydrogen is challenging to store and transport due to its low density, requiring infrastructure development.
  • Efficiency: Electrolysis processes and fuel cells need further advancements to improve energy efficiency.
  • Competition: Hydrogen faces competition from other clean energy technologies like batteries and carbon capture.


Green hydrogen fuel cells represent a transformative technology with the potential to decarbonize various sectors of the economy and mitigate climate change. As investments in renewable energy and hydrogen infrastructure continue to grow, green hydrogen is poised to play a pivotal role in the transition to a sustainable and low-carbon energy future. It offers a clean and versatile energy carrier that can address some of the most pressing global energy and environmental challenges. However, addressing the cost and infrastructure challenges will be crucial to realizing the full potential of green hydrogen fuel cells.




Q.   How can policies and technological advancements facilitate the widespread adoption of green hydrogen fuel cells in various sectors of the economy? (150 Words)