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Context: The Geological Survey of India (GSI) has dismissed a media report that India had found a massive deposit of lithium in Rajasthan, a mineral that is crucial for the production of electric vehicles and batteries. The GSI has issued a statement denying any such discovery and calling the report "baseless."


  • According to the GSI, the report was based on a preliminary exploration carried out in 2017-18 in the Mandi district of Rajasthan. The exploration revealed some traces of lithium in the pegmatites, a type of igneous rock that contains various minerals. However, the GSI clarified that the concentration of lithium was very low and not economically viable for extraction.
  • The GSI also stated that it had not conducted any further exploration or estimation of lithium resources in Rajasthan or any other part of India.

Geological Survey of India (GSI)


  • The Geological Survey of India (GSI) is a scientific organisation under the Ministry of Mines that is responsible for conducting geological surveys and research in India.
  • The GSI was established in 1851 by the British colonial government to map the mineral resources of the country.
  • Its headquarter is in Kolkata.


  • The main functions of GSI are to conduct geological mapping, mineral exploration, geotechnical studies, natural hazard assessment, and geo-environmental studies.
  • Provide reliable and updated geological information and maps for various purposes, such as mineral exploration, land use planning, disaster management, water resources management, infrastructure development, and scientific research.
  • Conducts studies on the geodynamic processes and phenomena that shape the earth's crust and interior, such as plate tectonics, earthquakes, volcanoes, landslides, and climate change.
  • GSI also maintains a national geoscience museum and a geoscience library.

Role and Achievements

  • The GSI has played a vital role in the development of the country by providing valuable information on the geology and mineral resources of India.
  • It has also contributed to the understanding of the earth's history, evolution, and dynamics.
  • Mapping the entire country at different scales and producing thematic maps on various geological aspects.
  • Discovering and assessing the mineral potential of various regions and commodities, such as coal, iron ore, manganese, bauxite, copper, gold, diamond, uranium, thorium, rare earth, etc.
  • Studying the geological evolution and structure of the Indian subcontinent and its relation to other continents.
  • Exploring the continental shelf and deep sea areas of India and identifying potential resources and hazards.
  • Investigating the glacial history and dynamics of the Himalayas and other mountain ranges.
  • Documenting the fossil record and biodiversity of India from different geological periods.
  • Developing geospatial databases and information systems for easy access and dissemination of geological data.
  • Providing technical advice and consultancy services to various government departments and private sectors on geological issues.
  • Promoting public awareness and education on geology and its relevance to society.


  • The GSI is committed to providing high-quality geoscientific services to the nation and to fostering international cooperation in geoscience research and development. It is also engaged in capacity-building and outreach activities to promote geoscience education and awareness among various stakeholders. The GSI is constantly striving to upgrade its skills and technologies to meet emerging challenges and opportunities in the field of geoscience.

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Lithium: https://www.iasgyan.in/daily-current-affairs/lithium 


Q. Which of the following statements is/are correct about the Geological Survey of India (GSI)?

1. It is under the Ministry of Science and Technology.

2. It provides basic earth science information to various stakeholders.

3. It explores and identifies mineral resources in India.

Choose the correct code;

A. 1 and 2 only

B. 2 and 3 only

C. 1 and 3 only

D. 1, 2 and 3

Answer: B

Statement 1 is incorrect: The Geological Survey of India (GSI) is a scientific agency that conducts geological surveys and studies of India. It was founded in 1851 by the East India Company and is now under the Ministry of Mines.