IAS Gyan

Daily News Analysis


3rd February, 2024 POLITY AND GOVERNANCE


Disclaimer: Copyright infringement not intended.


  • On January 28, when Nitish Kumar secured his record ninth term as Bihar Chief Minister by rejoining forces with the BJP, he did so with the support of two deputy CMs.

Constitutional Basis:

  • Article 163(1) establishes a Council of Ministers with the Chief Minister at the head to aid and advise the Governor.
  • Article 164(1) outlines the appointment process, with the Chief Minister appointed by the Governor, and other Ministers appointed by the Governor on the advice of the Chief Minister.

Absence of Explicit Mention of Deputy CM:

  • Neither Article 163 nor Article 164(1) explicitly mentions the position of Deputy Chief Minister.

Equivalent Rank and Status:

  • Understanding: Despite the absence of direct mention, the Deputy Chief Minister is considered equivalent in rank to a Cabinet Minister in the state government.
  • Pay and Perks: The Deputy Chief Minister is entitled to the same pay and perks as a Cabinet Minister.

Appointment Process:

  • Chief Minister's Appointment: Governed by Article 164(1), appointed by the Governor.
  • Other Ministers' Appointment: Also under Article 164(1), appointed by the Governor on the advice of the Chief Minister.

Broader Framework of Ministerial Appointments:

  • Article 164(1): Pertains to the appointment of Ministers, encompassing both the Chief Minister and other Ministers without explicit exclusion of the Deputy CM.

Practical Recognition:

  • Equivalent Status: In practice, the Deputy Chief Minister is practically recognized as holding an equivalent status to a Cabinet Minister.

Reinforcement of Role Importance:

  • Pay and Perks: The fact that the Deputy CM enjoys the same pay and perks as a Cabinet Minister reinforces the importance and equivalence of the role.

Historical Context:

  • Long-standing Feature: The appointment of a Deputy Chief Minister has been a consistent aspect of Indian politics.
  • Political Compromise: It often symbolizes a political compromise, especially after the establishment of a coalition government.

Coalition Governments and Compromise:

  • Formation of Coalition Government: Deputy CM appointments frequently occur following the formation of a coalition government.
  • Lack of Unchallenged Authority: When no single leader possesses unchallenged authority within the party in power.
  • Loyalty Across Interest Groups: It may also be a result of the absence of a leader with loyalty across all key interest groups in the state.

Balancing Power Dynamics:

  • Representation: Deputy CM appointments are strategic for representing diverse factions within a coalition, ensuring a balance of power.
  • Maintaining Stability: Helps maintain stability and cohesion in the government.

Key Role in Governance:

  • Policy Formulation: Deputy CMs contribute significantly to policy formulation and decision-making.
  • Administrative Stability: Their role ensures administrative stability, especially during periods of leadership transition or absence.

Adaptation to Political Realities:

  • Flexibility in Governance: The role of Deputy CM adapts to the dynamic and diverse political realities within states.
  • Effectiveness in Coalition Politics: Proves effective in navigating the complexities of coalition politics.

Ensuring Inclusivity:

  • Representation of Interests: The appointment ensures representation of varied interests, communities, and regions.
  • Inclusive Governance: Contributes to the ethos of inclusive governance.

In a nutshell,

Significance of the post of Deputy Chief Minister

Political Compromise:

  • Often signifies a political compromise, crucial for forming coalition governments or when no single leader commands unchallenged authority.

Coalition Stability:

  • Contributes to the stability of coalition governments by accommodating diverse factions and interests within the ruling party or alliance.

Power Balancing:

  • Helps balance power dynamics within the government, ensuring representation of various communities, regions, and interest groups.

Leadership Transition:

  • Plays a vital role in maintaining administrative stability during leadership transitions or in the absence of the Chief Minister.

Inclusive Governance:

  • Ensures inclusivity in decision-making by representing a broad spectrum of interests, fostering a more representative and diverse governance structure.

Strategic Representation:

  • Represents a strategic appointment to handle specific portfolios, contributing to effective policy formulation and implementation.

Deputy CM's Role and Responsibilities:

  • Acts as the Chief Minister's deputy, assisting in the administration and governance of the state.
  • May act as a bridge between the ruling party and its allies, or different regions and communities within the state.

Succession and Checks on Authority:

  • Could be seen as a potential successor to the Chief Minister.
  • Acts as a check and balance on the authority of the Chief Minister.

Influence on Policy-Making:

  • May influence policy-making and governance, depending on rapport with the Chief Minister and other ministers.

Challenges faced by Deputy Chief Ministers

Constitutional Limitations:

  • Despite the significant role, the Deputy Chief Minister does not possess constitutional authority to act on behalf of the Chief Minister or issue orders without their consent.

Lack of Clarity in Roles:

  • Deputy Chief Ministers face challenges due to undefined roles, impacting their ability to set priorities and manage responsibilities effectively.

Conflict and Rivalry:

  • Potential conflicts with the Chief Minister or other Ministers may arise, requiring diplomatic skills to navigate power struggles within the ruling party. 

Limited Autonomy:

  • Despite their position, Deputy CMs may lack autonomy, hindering independent decision-making and policy implementation.

Low Public Visibility:

  • Deputy CMs often struggle with lower public recognition and visibility compared to the Chief Minister, necessitating efforts to communicate their contributions effectively.

Accountability and Transparency:

  • Undefined roles can lead to challenges in accountability and transparency, affecting public trust and perception of decision-making processes.

Way Ahead

Establishing Clear Guidelines:

  • Develop clear and written guidelines defining the appointment, roles, and functions of Deputy Chief Ministers to provide a structured framework.

Effective Communication and Coordination:

  • Ensure regular and effective communication and coordination between the Chief Minister and Deputy Chief Minister to mitigate potential conflicts and enhance collaboration.

Key Participation in Policy-Making:

  • Provide adequate representation and participation to Deputy Chief Ministers in crucial policy-making bodies and committees, allowing them a substantial role in decision-making processes.

Public Awareness Campaigns:

  • Launch campaigns to enhance public awareness and understanding of the significant role and contributions made by Deputy Chief Ministers, increasing their visibility.

Performance Monitoring Mechanisms:

  • Strengthen mechanisms for monitoring and evaluating the performance and outcomes of Deputy Chief Ministers, fostering accountability and transparency.


  • Implementing these steps can lead to a more structured and collaborative environment, ensuring that Deputy Chief Ministers are equipped with defined roles, effective communication channels, key participatory roles in decision-making, increased public recognition, and mechanisms for performance assessment.
  • This comprehensive approach contributes to a more effective and transparent functioning of the Deputy Chief Minister's role within the state government.


Q. In the context of Indian state governance, consider the following statements about the Deputy Chief Minister:

A. The Deputy Chief Minister is not explicitly mentioned in the Indian Constitution.

B. The Deputy Chief Minister may act as a bridge between the ruling party and its allies or between different regions within the state.

C. The appointment of a Deputy Chief Minister is more prevalent in states with single-party rule.

D. Deputy Chief Ministers have constitutional authority to issue orders or directives without the Chief Minister's consent.

Which of the statements is/are correct?

A. A and B only

B. B and C only

C. A, B, and C only

D. All of the above

Answer: A. A and B only


  • Statement A is correct. The Deputy Chief Minister is not explicitly mentioned in the Indian Constitution. The role and appointment of Deputy Chief Ministers are usually determined by state-specific laws and political conventions.
  • Statement B is correct. Deputy Chief Ministers often act as a bridge between the ruling party and its allies or between different regions within the state. This role involves fostering cooperation and coordination.
  • Statement C is incorrect. The appointment of a Deputy Chief Minister is often more prevalent in states with coalition governments, where the position may serve as a means of balancing power among coalition partners.
  • Statement D is incorrect. Deputy Chief Ministers do not have constitutional authority to issue orders or directives without the Chief Minister's consent. Their powers are typically defined by state laws and party conventions.