IAS Gyan

Daily News Analysis


25th April, 2020



1. IIT researchers develop tool to predict spread of COVID-19


—Researchers at the Indian Institute of Technology in Delhi have developed a web-based dashboard for predicting the spread of COVID-19 in India.

—The mobile-friendly dashboard, PRACRITI (PRediction and Assessment of CoRona Infections and Transmission in India) gives detailed State-wise and district-wise predictions of COVID-19 cases in India for a three-week period, which is updated on a weekly basis.

—Such a platform will be highly useful for healthcare organisations as well as local and central authorities to efficiently plan for different future scenarios and resource allocation.

—A key parameter of interest on COVID-19 is the basic reproduction number (R0), pronounced ‘R naught’ and its countrywide variability.

R0 refers to the number of people to whom the disease spreads from a single infected person. For instance, if an active COVID-19 patient infects two uninfected persons, the R0 value is two. Reduction of R0 is key in controlling and mitigating COVID-19 in India.

—PRACRITI provides the R0 values of each district and State based on data available from the Ministry of Health and Family Welfare, National Disaster Management Authority, and the World Health Organization.

—The distinguishing feature of the model is the inclusion of the effect of movement of population across district/State boarders in the spread of COVID-19.


About NDMA

— National Disaster Management Authority, abbreviated as NDMA, is an apex Body of Government of India, with a mandate to lay down policies for disaster management.

—NDMA was established through the Disaster Management Act enacted by the Government of India on 23 December 2005.

—NDMA is responsible for framing policies, laying down guidelines and best practices for coordinating with the State Disaster Management Authorities (SDMAs) to ensure a holistic and distributed approach to disaster management.

— It is headed by the Prime Minister of India and can have up to nine other members. Since 2014, there have been four other members. There is a provision to have a Vice Chair-person if needed.

—NDMA equips and trains other Government officials, institutions and the community in mitigation for and response during a crisis or a disaster. It works closely with the National Institute of Disaster Management for capacity building.

—It develops practices, delivers hands-on training and organizes drills for disaster management. It also equips and trains disaster management cells at the state and local levels.


About WHO

— The World Health Organization (WHO) is a specialized agency of the United Nations responsible for international public health.

—The WHO Constitution, which establishes the agency's governing structure and principles, states its main objective as ensuring "the attainment by all peoples of the highest possible level of health."

—It is headquartered in Geneva, Switzerland, with 6 semi-autonomous regional offices and 150 field offices worldwide.


Reference: https://www.thehindu.com/news/cities/Delhi/iit-researchers-develop-tool-to-predict-spread-of-covid-19/article31429333.ece


2. ‘Supervise disposal of COVID-19 waste’


—The National Green Tribunal has directed a team of officials from the Environment, Health, Defence and Water Resources Ministries to supervise the handling and scientific disposal of COVID-19 waste, along with officers from the Central Pollution Control Board.

—The virus spreads mainly by droplets and by touch of contaminated articles. Large scale testing has been and is being done. By way of precaution, masks, gloves, PPE etc are used which are disposed of thereafter.

—Stating that the in view of the corona virus pandemic challenges like gaps in compliance of bio-medical waste rules needed to be addressed, the green panel that guidelines issued by the CPCB needed further revision.


About NGT

— National Green Tribunal Act, 2010 is an Act of the Parliament of India, which enables creation of a special tribunal to handle the expeditious disposal of the cases pertaining to environmental issues.

— It draws inspiration from the India's constitutional provision of (Constitution of India/Part III) Article 21 Protection of life and personal liberty, which assures the citizens of India the right to a healthy environment. Delhi Pollution Control Committee (DPCC) is a department to control pollution in Delhi.


About CPCB

— The Central Pollution Control Board (CPCB) of India is a statutory organisation under the Ministry of Environment, Forest and Climate Change (Mo.E.F.C). It was established in 1974 under the Water (Prevention and Control of pollution) Act, 1974.

—The CPCB is also entrusted with the powers and functions under the Air (Prevention and Control of Pollution) Act, 1981. It serves as a field formation and provides technical services to the Ministry of Environment and Forests under the provisions of the Environment (Protection) Act, 1986.

—It co-ordinates the activities of the State Pollution Control Boards by providing technical assistance and guidance and resolves disputes among them. It is the apex organisation in country in the field of pollution control, as a technical wing of MoEFC.

—The board is led by its Chairperson, who is generally a career civil servant from the Indian Administrative Service appointed by the Appointments Committee of the Cabinet of the Government of India.


Reference: https://www.thehindu.com/news/cities/Delhi/supervise-disposal-of-covid-19-waste/article31429355.ece


3. Coronavirus | Increase fresh air, limit use of central AC systems: CPWD


—Officials in charge of all Central Public Works Department (CPWD) buildings in the country have been asked to follow the safety guidelines issued by the Indian Society of Heating, Refrigerating and Air Conditioning Engineers (ISHRAE) on preventing the transmission of novel corona virus through central AC systems.

—Among the buildings maintained by the CPWD are offices of the Ministries in Delhi.

—While many private businesses that have central HVAC systems are closed due to the lockdown, many buildings such as hospitals, hotels and other essential services are functional.

—The ISHRAE guidelines released on April 13 say that the use of HVAC systems should be limited and fresh air should be used to ventilate indoor areas as much as possible.

—For air-conditioning systems, whether at home or industrial or commercial spaces, the guidelines say that air filters should be kept clean. The indoor unit coils should be inspected and kept clean.

—The temperature setting for the room should be between 24 degrees Celsius and 30 degrees Celsius and relative humidity between 40% to 70%.

—Fans should be used to increase air movement; the guidelines say and add that exhaust fans in kitchens and toilets should also be switched on.

—In case of buildings that do not have adequate fresh air, the guidelines say, an additional fresh air duct should be provided.

—The guidelines also highlight the need for sanitisation and maintenance of HVAC systems once the lockdown ends.


About CPWD

— The Central Public Works Department of India commonly referred to as the CPWD, is a premier Central Government authority in charge of public sector works.

—The Central Public Works Department, under the Ministry of Urban Development now MoHUA (Ministry of Housing and Urban Affairs), deals with buildings, roads, bridges, flyovers, complicated structures like stadiums, auditoriums, laboratories, bunkers, border fencing, border roads (hill roads), etc.

—CPWD came into existence in July 1854 when Lord Dalhousie established a central agency for execution of public works and set up Ajmer Provincial Division.

—It has now grown into a comprehensive construction management department, which provides services from project concept to completion, and maintenance management.


Reference: https://www.thehindu.com/news/national/coronavirus-increase-fresh-air-limit-use-of-central-ac-systems-cpwd/article31423694.ece


4. Coronavirus | Madhya Pradesh runs out of RNA extraction kits


—Madhya Pradesh is fast running out of automated RNA extraction kits and staring at a statewide shortage in two to three days time in the wake of glitches in the supply chain.

—The kits, having twice as much output than manual ones, are used in the process to test a sample for COVID-19.

—The laboratory in the State’s hardest hit city, Indore, which accounts for 66% of the tally, will run out of the automated column-based RNA (ribonucleic acid) extraction kits.

—Whereas in Bhopal, the AIIMS and the Gandhi Medical College’s laboratories will run out of stock in another day. Kits at the Bhopal Memorial Hospital and Research Centre will last for two days, as will those with the Jabalpur laboratory.

—The manual bead-based RNA isolation kits can be used for 12 samples in an hour, whereas the automated ones can be used for 24.


Reference: https://www.thehindu.com/news/national/other-states/madhya-pradesh-runs-out-of-rna-extraction-kits/article31428149.ece


5. Coronavirus | Rapid test kits were cleared by ICMR, say Chinese manufacturers


—Two leading Chinese companies on April 23 expressed shock and surprise at reports of malfunctioning of rapid testing kits that they had supplied to India saying the products had been approved by the Indian Council of Medical Research (ICMR) and the National Institute of Virology.

—“Wondfo received import license from India for Wondfo SARS-CoV-2 Antibody Test [Lateral Flow Method] on March 20, 2020. And the product was validated and approved by the ICMR through National Institute of Virology [NIV], Pune,” said a statement from Wondfo, one of the major global suppliers of rapid testing kits for COVID-19 viral infection.

—A similar statement was issued by Livzon Diagnostics Inc., the other Chinese supplier that also supplied a bulk of the rapid testing kits.

—The statements from the Chinese medical device companies came a day after ICMR halted surveillance testing for two days, largely due to complaints of faulty Chinese test kits.

—The explanations from Wondfo and Livzon clarified that the tests had to be conducted within laid down procedures and violation of the laid down procedures could disturb the test results.


About ICMR

— The Indian Council of Medical Research (ICMR), the apex body in India for the formulation, coordination and promotion of biomedical research, is one of the oldest and largest medical research bodies in the world.

—The ICMR is funded by the Government of India through the Department of Health Research, Ministry of Health and Family Welfare.


About NIV

— The National Institute of Virology, Pune is an Indian virology research institute, and one of the translational science cells part of Indian Council of Medical Research (ICMR).

—It was previously known as 'Virus Research Center' and was founded in collaboration with the Rockefeller Foundation. It has been designated as a WHO H5 reference laboratory for SE Asia region.

— The Virus Research Center (VRC), Pune came into existence in 1952 under the joint auspices of the ICMR and the Rockefeller Foundation, as a part of the global programme of investigations on the arthropod-borne group of viruses.

—In view of its expanded scope and activities, the VRC was re-designated as the National Institute of Virology (NIV) in 1978.


Reference: https://www.thehindu.com/news/national/coronavirus-rapid-test-kits-were-cleared-by-icmr-say-chinese-manufacturers/article31419792.ece





1. CAIT to launch e-commerce marketplace


—The Confederation of All India Traders (CAIT) said it would soon lunch a national e-commerce marketplace to help local kirana stores take orders online in association with the Department for Promotion of Industry and Internal Trader (DPIIT) and other bodies.

—In the present situation, people who are especially in tier two and tier three cities, are particularly dependent on local stores for supply of goods but are facing many challenges, the CAIT said.

—The platform is being developed to overcome these, it said, adding that this would be meant as a permanent e-commerce platform for digitising existing businesses.



— The Department for Promotion of Industry and Internal Trade (DPIIT) is a central government department under the Ministry of Commerce and Industry.

— It is responsible for formulation and implementation of promotional and developmental measures for growth of the industrial sector, keeping in view the national priorities and socio-economic objectives.

—While individual administrative ministries look after the production, distribution, development and planning aspects of specific industries allocated to them, DPIIT is responsible for the overall industrial policy.

— It is also responsible for facilitating and increasing the foreign direct investment (FDI) flows to the country.


Reference: https://www.thehindu.com/news/cities/Delhi/cait-to-launch-e-commerce-marketplace/article31428512.ece


2. Footwear sector hit hard by transport ban


—Hit hard by the lockdown, much like other sectors, the footwear industry in Haryana’s Bahadurgarh, the hub of country’s non-leather footwear manufacturers with an annual turnover of around ₹18,000 crores, hoped to make the most of the resurgence of economic activity in the rural areas during the Rabi crop harvest season, but it fails to reap the benefits due to continued ban on transport of goods.

—Spread across the industrial areas of Bahadurgarh, including the Footwear Park, around 1,000 footwear-manufacturing units employ over two lakh workers, most of them migrant.

—Though Agra and Kanpur remains the hub for leather footwear, Bahadurgarh footwear manufacturers have around 50% share in the country’s non-leather footwear industry. It exports good worth around ₹2,000 crores annually.

—Though a large number of workforce stays in Bahadurgarh, a small section is settled in Delhi’s Mundka and Nangloi areas as well.


Reference: https://www.thehindu.com/news/national/other-states/footwear-sector-hit-hard-by-transport-ban/article31428331.ece


3. Joining of giants: On Facebook-Jio deal


—Face book’s decision to invest ₹43,574 crores for a 9.9% stake in Reliance Industries Ltd.’s Jio Platforms marks a rare coming together of two giants who have a reputation for market domination. —The focus of their combined might is the India retail sector, a difficult terrain, as large parts of it are still unorganised.

—In recent years, the retail space has been an ongoing battlefield for behemoths such as Amazon and Walmart, themselves globally dominant players.

—The other interested parties in this are payment services companies such as the Softbank- and Alibaba-backed Paytm, and Google, which runs Google Pay.

—But the combination of Facebook and Reliance will be difficult to beat — they seem to have both the marketplace and the payment solution sides covered.

—For Facebook’s WhatsApp messaging service, India is the biggest market with over 400 million users. It currently awaits regulatory approval for its payment solutions.

— Jio is now India’s No. 1 telecom brand by user base, less than four years after it launched its service.

—And then, JioMart is a recently-launched commerce marketplace, which seeks to connect local retailers with consumers.

—While its social media services and messaging services have been extremely popular in India, Facebook has however struggled to get past regulatory concerns in India over some of its ambitious projects such as its free limited Internet offering Free Basics and digital currency Libra.

—The deal, coming as it does at a time when the world is fighting the corona virus pandemic, is a thumbs up to India’s potential.

—It is noteworthy that this is the largest foreign direct investment in the technology sector in India.


Reference: https://www.thehindu.com/opinion/editorial/joining-of-giants-the-hindu-editorial-on-facebook-jio-deal/article31427757.ece


4. No plan to ease fiscal deficit targets


—Despite the strain on government finances due to the COVID-19 pandemic, there is no credible proposal to amend the legislation meant to control the fiscal deficit according to Chairman of the 15th Finance Commission N.K. Singh.

—While presenting the Union Budget in February, the Finance Minister had invoked the Fiscal Responsibility and Budget Management Act’s escape clause to relax the fiscal deficit target for 2020-21 by 0.5% percentage points to 3.5% of the GDP.

—If the government wishes to increase spending further in light of the current crisis, as many economists have recommended, it may need to amend the Act.

—The State governments have been demanding that their own 3% fiscal deficit targets be relaxed to 4% or even 5%, to give them elbow room in dealing with the impact of the lockdown.


Need for new law

—A more expeditious method would be for the States to first trigger their own escape clauses, he said.

—He also cautioned that the States need to weigh the cost of borrowing from the market, and whether there would be appetite for their bonds.

—It is important to ensure that the State governments get access to adequate funds to undertake their fight against the pandemic.

—Noting that the lockdown’s impact on public finances will be significant, with a large shortfall in tax and other revenues, the Council recommended a nuanced fiscal response, with a focus not just on the size but the design of any stimulus package.

—A support mechanism for cash-starved small enterprises needs to be a top priority, along with partial loan guarantees and other measures to protect non-banking financial companies, the Council said.


About Finance Commission

— The Finance Commission was established by the President of India in 1951 under Article 280 of the Indian Constitution. It was formed to define the financial relations between the central government of India and the individual state governments.

—The Finance Commission (Miscellaneous Provisions) Act, 1951 additionally defines the terms of qualification, appointment and disqualification, the term, eligibility and powers of the Finance Commission.

—As per the Constitution, the Commission is appointed every five years and consists of a chairman and four other members.


The Fiscal Responsibility and Budget Management (FRBM) Act, 2003, intends to bring transparency and accountability in the conduct of the fiscal and monetary actions of the government.


The rules set targets for the phased reduction of the fiscal deficit to acceptable levels. It requires the government to limit the fiscal deficit to 3% of the GDP by 31 March 2021 and the debt of the central government to 40% of the GDP by 2024-25, among others. The Act provides room for deviation from the annual fiscal deficit target under certain conditions.


The government is also required to provide the Parliament details of fiscal indicators such as fiscal, revenue and primary deficit as a percentage of GDP, tax and non-tax revenues as a percentage of GDP, and central government debt as a percentage of GDP.


Reference: https://www.thehindu.com/news/national/no-plan-to-ease-fiscal-deficit-targets/article31427840.ece


5. Foodgrain stock will last till next March, says FCI chief


—The stock of food grains available with the Food Corporation of India is “comfortable” to manage the situation till March next year, but it would be an exaggeration to hold that the stock is “far in excess” of the buffer stock requirement, which should include additional allocation, according to D.V. Prasad, Chairman and Managing Director of the FCI.

—The buffer stock norms are fixed based on the requirement of wheat or rice at 5 kg a person for 80 crores beneficiaries of the National Food Security Act (NFSA), which was in line with the requirements of the law.


Additional allocation

—The norms have been determined, considering normal situations and they essentially provide for any production shortfalls. However, a pandemic, as we are witnessing today, is a different situation and it may demand a revision of the existing norms in view of the additional allocation of food grains at 5 kg a person, as being done under the Pradhan Mantri Garib Kalyan Ann Yojana (PMGKAY) for three months (April to June this year in the light of the corona virus (COVID-19).

—State-wise tracker for COVID-19 cases, deaths and testing, and a map of confirmed cases in India

—As on date, the total stock is 564 lakh tonnes, of which rice accounts for 284 lakh tonnes and wheat, 280 lakh tonnes.

—In the remaining period of April, May and June, it is expected that there will be an outflow of 200 lakh tonnes for the regular NFSA scheme, 5 kg free for each NFSA beneficiaries given under PMGKAY and the new schemes introduced for non-NFSA cardholders and NGOs.

—As per the norms fixed in 2015, the buffer stock, as maintained on April 1, was around 210 lakh tonnes, a figure that would change on the first day of July, October and January.


About FCI

— The Food Corporation of India is an organization created and run by the Government of India. It is a statutory body under the Ministry of Consumer Affairs, Food and Public Distribution, Government of India. Its top official is designated as Chairman.

—It was set up in 1965 with its Initial headquarters at Chennai. Later this was moved to New Delhi. It also has regional centres in the capitals of the states. Important regions of the state also serve as district centres.


Reference: https://www.thehindu.com/news/national/foodgrain-stock-will-last-till-next-march-says-fci-chief/article31427695.ece





1. Anonymise COVID-19 data before handover, HC tells govt.


—Division Bench of the High Court on Friday directed the State government to anonymise the data on COVID-19 patients and those in home quarantine and to allow Sprinklr, the U.S.-based data analytics firm with which the government has entered into a contract, to access the data only after these are anonymised.

—The court directed the government to obtain the consent of the citizens before collecting the data. —The company was asked not to hand over the data to a third party and to return them as soon as the contractual obligations were over.

—The court directed Sprinklr to immediately transfer the residual or secondary data back to the government. Sprinkler has been restrained from advertising the project and using the name and emblem of the government.


Govt. argument

—Govt. submitted that the privacy policy of the company and the international data protection norms ensured a high level of confidentiality of data. The agreement prevented Sprinklr from using the data for other purposes.

—The data were stored in an encrypted form in Amazon Cloud in Mumbai. Besides, the period of the agreement was for six months, beyond which the company could not retain the data.

—As the data were in India, criminal prosecution could be initiated under the provisions of the Information Technology Act, 2000 for breach of confidentiality.


On NIC services

—Additional Advocate General K.K. Raveendranath submitted that none of the government institutions were capable of doing big data analysis within a short time.

—The State government would take a call on utilising the services of the National Informatics Centre (NIC) for data analysis.


About NIC

— The National Informatics Centre (NIC) is an attached office under the Ministry of Electronics and Information Technology (MeitY) in the Indian government.

— The NIC provides infrastructure to help support the delivery of government IT services and the delivery of some of the initiatives of Digital India.


Reference: https://www.thehindu.com/news/national/kerala/anonymise-covid-19-data-before-handover-hc-tells-govt/article31427909.ece


2. No 100% quota: On overzealous reservation


—The Supreme Court is right in considering cent per cent reservation as anathema to the constitutional scheme of equality even if it is for the laudable objective of providing representation to historically deprived sections.

—The verdict quashing the reservation of 100% of all teaching posts in ‘Scheduled Areas’ of Andhra Pradesh for local Scheduled Tribes is not against affirmative programmes as such, but a caution against implementing them in a manner detrimental to the rest of society.

—A five-judge Constitution Bench found that earmarking teacher posts in areas notified under the Fifth Schedule of the Constitution adversely affected the interests of other candidates from not only Scheduled Castes and other backward communities but also other ST communities not native to those areas.

—Of course, what the State government did, in its original orders of 1986, and thereafter, in a subsequent order in 2000, was not without its own rationale. It found that there was chronic absenteeism among teachers who did not belong to those remote areas where the schools were located. However, its solution of drafting only members of the local tribes was not a viable solution. —As the Bench noted, it could have come up with other incentives to ensure the attendance of teachers.

—Another aspect that the court took into account was that Andhra Pradesh has a local area system of recruitment to public services. The President, under Article 371D, has issued orders that a resident of a district/zone cannot apply to another district/zone for appointment. Thus, the 100% quota deprived residents of the Scheduled Areas of any opportunity to apply for teaching posts.

—Affirmative action loses its meaning if it does not leave the door slightly ajar for open competition. Dr. B.R. Ambedkar observed during the debate in the Constituent Assembly on the equality clause, that any reservation normally ought to be for a “minority of seats”.

—This is one of the points often urged in favour of the 50% cap imposed by the Court on total reservation, albeit with some allowance for relaxation in special circumstances.

—It is still a matter of debate whether the ceiling has innate sanctity, but it is clear that wherever it is imperative that the cap be breached, a special case must be made for it.

—Such a debate should not divert attention from the fact that there is a continuing need for a significant quota for STs, especially those living in areas under the Fifth Schedule special dispensation. In this backdrop, it is somewhat disappointing that courts tend to record obiter dicta advocating a revision of the list of SCs and STs.

—While the power to amend the lists notified by the President is not in dispute, it is somewhat uncharitable to say that the advanced and “affluent” sections within SCs and STs are cornering all benefits and do not permit any trickle-down. Indian society is still some distance from reaching that point.


Reference: https://www.thehindu.com/opinion/editorial/no-100-quota-the-hindu-editorial-on-overzealous-reservation/article31427747.ece




1. NBWL nod for coal mining in Assam elephant reserve


—Amid the countrywide lockdown, the National Board for Wild Life (NBWL) has recommended coal mining in a part of an elephant reserve in Assam.

—The NBWL’s Standing Committee had on April 7 discussed a proposal for use of 98.59 hectares of land from the Saleki proposed reserve forestland for a coal-mining project by North-Easter Coal Field (NECF), a unit of Coal India Limited.

—The NBWL is under the Ministry of Environment, Forest and Climate Change (MoEFCC).

—Saleki is a part of the Dehing Patkai Elephant Reserve that includes the Dehing Patkai Wildlife Sanctuary covering 111.19 sq km of rainforest and several reserve forests in Sivasagar, Dibrugarh and Tinsukia districts.


About National Board for Wildlife:

—It is a “Statutory Organization” constituted under the Wildlife Protection Act, 1972.

—Its roles are “advisory” in nature and advise the Central Government on framing policies and measures for conservation of wildlife in the country.

—Primary function of the Board is to promote the conservation and development of wildlife and forests.

—It has power to review all wildlife-related matters and approve projects in and around national parks and sanctuaries.

—No alternation of boundaries in national parks and wildlife sanctuaries can be done without approval of the NBWL.

—Composition: The NBWL is chaired by the Prime Minister. It has 47 members including the Prime Minister. Among these, 19 members are ex-officio members. Other members include three Members of Parliament (2 from Lok Sabha and one from Rajya Sabha), five NGOs and 10 eminent ecologists, conservationists and environmentalists.


Reference: https://www.thehindu.com/news/national/other-states/nbwl-nod-for-coal-mining-in-assam-elephant-reserve/article31427115.ece




1. Coronavirus | South Asia needs a humanitarian response to the COVID-19 pandemic: Ranil Wickremesinghe


—The former Sri Lankan Prime Minister says India has to play a leading role in formulating a SAARC-led regional response to the crisis.



— The South Asian Association for Regional Cooperation (SAARC) is the regional intergovernmental organization and geopolitical union of states in South Asia.

—Its member states are Afghanistan, Bangladesh, Bhutan, India, the Maldives, Nepal, Pakistan and Sri Lanka. SAARC comprises 3% of the world's area, 21% of the world's population and 4.21% (US$3.67 trillion) of the global economy, as of 2019.

— SAARC was founded in Dhaka on 8 December 1985.

— Its secretariat is based in Kathmandu, Nepal. The organization promotes development of economic and regional integration.

— It launched the South Asian Free Trade Area in 2006.


Reference: https://www.thehindu.com/news/international/south-asia-needs-a-humanitarian-response-to-the-covid-19-pandemic/article31427883.ece


2. Iran’s missile launch is of significant concern: U.K.


—The U.K. said that an Iranian satellite launch earlier this week was of significant concern and inconsistent with a United Nations Security Council (UNSC) resolution.

—Reports that Iran has carried out a satellite launch using ballistic missile technology are of significant concern and inconsistent with UNSC resolution 2231.

About UNSC

— The United Nations Security Council (UNSC) is one of the six principal organs of the United Nations (UN), charged with ensuring international peace and security, recommending that the General Assembly accept new members to the United Nations, and approving any changes to its charter.

—Its powers include the establishment of peacekeeping operations and international sanctions as well as the authorization of military actions through resolutions – it is the only body of the United Nations with the authority to issue binding resolutions to member states.


Reference: https://www.thehindu.com/news/international/irans-missile-launch-is-of-significant-concern-uk/article31427693.ece