IAS Gyan

Daily News Analysis


21st August, 2019


How China is trying to quell Hong Kong’s protests without troops

From barring dissident flight attendants to encouraging “patriotic" citizens to confront protesters on the streets, China has unloaded a wide range of firepower against the city’s fractious opposition in recent weeks.

  1. 1.      Political Influence: The Hong Kong and Macau Affairs Office - China’s top agency overseeing the city -has held an unprecedented three briefings on the protests and summoned local representatives to a closed-door meeting in Shenzhen, where attendees say officials batted away appeals for compromise.

The moves demonstrate the Communist Party’s ability to reach deep into the city’s politics without resorting to military force.

  1. 2.      Mainland-Dependent Businesses: China uses its economic hegemony of being the world’s largest trader to express its political displeasure. Local richest Tycoons are calling for to end the violent protest. Alibaba is showing no results for shipping the products to Hong Kong.

3.     State Propaganda Machine:  

  • Chinese media have circulated photos and news reports of Chinese troops and paramilitary riot-control forces training in scenarios resembling Hong Kong’s protests.
  • The government’s claims that the protests are the product of foreign “black hands" such as the US and the UK are widely circulated, helping lay the ground for any more direct intervention.
  • Uglier parts of the protests, such as petrol bombs thrown at police stations or the defacement of national emblems are amplified.
  • Compare the Protestors to terrorists and rioters justifying the direct military action.
  • Censorship of the protests for curtailing the generation of any sympathy at mainland China.
  • It has a deep support network like Business tycoons, labour unions and neighbourhood associations to support the police and government.
  • They counter rallies organized around the globe to support Hong Kong’s protests.

4.     United Front :  

  1. 5.      Triad Support: It is using its own organized crime gangs known as Triad. They are attacking protestors, striking the passer-by.









Why New Delhi is turning up the heat on PoK now

Defence minister Rajnath Singh’s statement said that any future talks with Pakistan will focus on Pakistan-occupied Kashmir (PoK) has brought the focus back on the disputed region.




How did Pakistan occupy a part of J&K? 

  • Immediate ceasefire by UN during the 1948 war between India and Pakistan left a part of J & K with Pakistan which is today known as PoK.
  • PoK comprises the so-called Azad Jammu and Kashmir (AJK) and Gilgit-Baltistan.
  • Pakistan ceded a part of PoK, called the Trans Karakoram Tract, to China in 1963.
  • AJK has its own constitution, a prime minister and a president, though real power is vested with Pakistan.
  • The administration of Gilgit-Baltistan was handed over to Pakistan by AJK in 1949.
  • It is a disputed territory between India and China.
  • Whole of J & K including PoK is part of India.
  • Both houses had adopted a unanimous resolution making J & K an integral part of India in 1994.
  • It shifts India’s position from defensive to offensive.
  • It also sends signal to China whose CPEC(China- Pakistan Economic Corridor) passes through PoK.

Is PoK a separate entity in Pakistan? 

Where does Aksai Chin come into the picture?

What has been India’s position on PoK?

What’s the significance of Singh’s statement?

Reference: https://www.livemint.com/politics/news/why-new-delhi-is-turning-up-the-heat-on-pok-now-1566324538622.html



Aadhaar-social media profile linking: Supreme Court concerned at dangers of dark web

Attorney General K.K. Venugopal stresses need to link social media profiles of registered users with their Aadhaar numbers.


  • Facebook and Whatsapp to share the 12 digit unique identity with law enforcement agencies.
  • It will curtail Fake News, defamatory articles, Pornographic Materials, anti-national contents in social media.
  • There is a difficulty in identifying the originator of the content.
  • Law enforcement agencies can respond in time.
  • They counter that messages are end to end encrypted and even, they don’t have access to the message.
  • Privacy is fundamental right and cant be breached for every flimsy grounds.
  • It may curtail people participation in political affairs as it can lead to their harassment as happens on twitter.
  • It may violate Article 19 Freedom of speech and Expression.
  • Encryption technology keeps the data protected from hackers. It may also compromise over data integrity.

Social media platforms are arguing over breach of the individual’s piracy.

Supreme court has stressed over finding right balance between the right to the individual piracy and ability of state to curb fake news and anti-national content.

Reference: https://www.thehindu.com/news/national/aadhaar-social-media-profile-linking-supreme-court-concerned-at-dangers-of-dark-web/article29182197.ece

Odisha to implement Centre’s ‘One Nation, One Ration Card’ scheme

The Odisha government has announced that it will implement the Centre’s ‘One Nation, One Ration Card’ initiative in the State starting from September 1.

  • It will enable beneficiaries to procure ration from any fair price shop.
  • These ration card will be linked to Aadhar number.
  • It will prevent duplicacy of the ration cards.
  • Beneficiary, who are not enrolled with Aadhar will continue to get the service with a certificate from the authority.
  • Beneficiary will have to give their finger prints to procure the ration.
  • Migrants workers will be able to access subsidised ration across India.
  • It will effectively target the Urban Poverty and implement the food security act in letter and spirit.
  • Central repository of Ration Cards will remove duplicity of ration cards thus bring down the corruption.
  • Targeting of the poor becomes effective as one person will not be able to access multiple times.
  • Proposal of creating “Depot Online System” monitoring the entire process of PDS right from procurement to distribution thus bringing transparency and efficiency in the process.
  • It will check the monopoly of the Fair price shop owners.
  • Issues of networking, Point Of Sale (PoS) machine not working, electricity not working will create problem in implementing the scheme.
  • There can be an issue of mismatch in supply and demand at a local fair price shop due to higher no of beneficiary.
  • It may create issues of inventory management at local fair price shop thus costly management for the fair price shop.
  • How will states integrate their own food security scheme in this scheme is not clear. It may create issues specially at the border areas where people may take benefits of better state.
  • Centralizing database of eatery habits create its own problems.
  • Fair price shop owners should be taken into confidence and their issues should be ironed out.
  • Pilot level testing in far flung areas will provide steps to implement the scheme more effectively.
  • Aim should be that no poor person or no eligible beneficiary should be left out.

Benefits Through the Scheme:

Concern/Challenges with the Scheme:

Way Forward:

Reference : https://www.thehindu.com/news/national/other-states/odisha-to-implement-centres-one-nation-one-ration-card-scheme/article29186403.ece



How Lancet is correcting gender imbalance in STEM research

Cultural stereotypes pose severe barriers for women's entry into the sciences—for instance, only 29% of female students in India are enrolled in a B.tech course, as per the All India Higher Education Survey (AISHE) 2017-18.

  • The Lancet group of journals announced a Diversity Pledge and a new ‘No All-Male Panel’—or ‘manel’—policy.
  • The move aims to increase the representation of women, people of colour, and colleagues from the Global South among the journal group’s editorial boards/advisors, peer reviewers, and authors. 
  • Stereotyping that women are not good in Science curtails their growth prospect.
  • Patriarchal societal norms of looking at women as an agency of household prevents their entry.
  • Marriages and Children bearing also curtail their prospects. Working Women are generally inflicted with double whammy: looking at their career and maintaining their households.
  • Women are neglected child who are given low nutrition and poor education during growing up phase. It affects their cognitive ability during youth.
  • Women are seen as having little responsibility in household finances and they quit job as soon as their husband salary gets good.
  • Issue of safety and security in public space also affects their growth.
  • Wage disparity at workplace can frustrate them and make them to leave the workplace.
  • Political law like maternity benefit act, which forces companies to give 6 month paid leave also, provide disincentives for companies to hire the women.
  • Making husband aware about his own responsibility towards household.
  • Sensitizing the society about gender equality.
  • Implementation of the Beti Bachao Beti Badhao in spirit.
  • Provide Tax exemption to firms providing women employment.
  • Strengthening public transport through network of local bus and metro, street lightening, creating sexual harassment committees at workplace will dilute the fears of women employee.

How cultural barriers affects women’s entry:

How to unshackle such cultural barrier:

Reference : https://www.financialexpress.com/opinion/how-lancet-is-correcting-gender-imbalance-in-stem-research/1679080/